Coeliac disease and invasive pneumococcal disease: a population-based cohort study

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Severe infections are recognized complications of coeliac disease (CD). In the present study we aimed to examine whether individuals with CD are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). To do so, we performed a population-based cohort study including 29 012 individuals with biopsy-proven CD identified through biopsy reports from all pathology departments in Sweden. Each individual with CD was matched with up to five controls (n = 144 257). IPD events were identified through regional and national microbiological databases, including the National Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases. We used Cox regression analyses to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for diagnosed IPD. A total of 207 individuals had a record of IPD whereas 45/29 012 had CD (0·15%) and 162/144 257 were controls (0·11%). This corresponded to a 46% increased risk for IPD [HR 1·46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·05-2·03]. The risk estimate was similar after adjustment for socioeconomic status, educational level and comorbidities, but then failed to attain statistical significance (adjusted HR 1·40, 95% CI 0·99-1·97). Nonetheless, our study shows a trend towards an increased risk for IPD in CD patients. The findings support results seen in earlier research and taking that into consideration individuals with CD may be considered for pneumococcal vaccination.


  • A Röckert Tjernberg
  • J Bonnedahl
  • M Inghammar
  • A Egesten
  • G. Kahlmeter
  • P Nauclér
  • B. Henriques-Normark
  • Jonas F. Ludvigsson
Enheter & grupper
Externa organisationer
  • Karolinska Institute
  • Kalmar County Hospital
  • Växjö Central Hospital
  • Karolinska University Hospital

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Gastroenterologi
Sidor (från-till)1203-1209
Antal sidor7
TidskriftEpidemiology and Infection
Utgåva nummer6
Tidigt onlinedatum2017 jan 23
StatusPublished - 2017
Peer review utfördJa