Concentrations of inorganic elements in bottled waters on the Swedish market

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This study presents the concentrations of about 50 metals and ions in 33 different brands of bottled waters on the Swedish market. Ten of the brands showed calcium (Ca) concentrations <= 10 mg L-1 and magnesium (Mg) levels < 3 mg L-1, implying very soft waters. Three of these waters had in addition low concentrations of sodium (Na; < 7 mg L-1), potassium (K; < 3 mg L-1) and bicarbonate (HCO3; <= 31 mg L-1). These brands were collected from barren districts. Nine of the brands were collected from limestone regions. They showed increased Ca-levels exceeding 50 mg L-1 with a maximum of 289 mg L-1. Corresponding Mg-levels were also raised in two brands exceeding 90 mg L-1. Two soft and carbonated waters were supplemented with Na2CO3 and NaCl, resulting in high concentrations of Na ( 644 and 648 mg L-1) and chloride (Cl; 204 and 219 mg L-1). Such waters may make a substantial contribution to the daily intake of NaCl in high water consumers. The storage of carbonated drinking water in aluminum (Al) cans increased the Al-concentration to about 70 mu g L-1. Conclusion: As there was a large variation in the material as regards concentrations of macro-elements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K and Cl. Supplementation with salts, e.g., Na2CO3, K2CO3 and NaCl, can lead to increased concentrations of Na, K and Cl, as well as decreased ratios of Ca/Na and larger ratios of Na/K. Water with high concentrations of e. g., Ca and Mg, may make a substantial contribution to the daily intake of these elements in high water consumers. Al cans are less suited for storage of carbonated waters, as the lowered pH-values may dissolve Al. The levels of potentially toxic metals in the studied brands were generally low.


  • Ingegerd Rosborg
  • Bengt Nihlgård
  • Lars Gerhardsson
  • Maj-Lis Gernersson
  • Ragnhild Ohlin
  • Tommy Olsson
Enheter & grupper

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Ekologi
  • Kemiteknik
Sidor (från-till)217-227
TidskriftEnvironmental Geochemistry and Health
Utgåva nummer3
StatusPublished - 2005
Peer review utfördJa