Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa

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title = "Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa",
abstract = "Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11th International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes affecting the distribution of alleles among taxa and find that alleles may not consistently and uniquely represent the species within which they are contained. Should the proposals be accepted, the meaning of nomenclatural types would change in a fundamental way from physicals objects as sources of data to the data themselves. Such changes are conducive to irreproducible science, the potential typification on artefactual data, and massive creation of names with low information content, ultimately causing nomenclatural instability and unnecessary work for future researchers that would stall future explorations of fungal diversity. We conclude that the acceptance of DNA sequences alone as types of names of taxa, under theterms used in the current proposals, is unnecessary and would not solve the problem of naming putative taxa known only from DNA sequences in a scientifically defensible way. As an alternative, we highlight the use of formulas for naming putative taxa (candidate taxa) that do not require any modification of the ICN.",
keywords = "IMC11, nomenclature, speciation, taxonomy, typification, voucherless fungi",
author = "Zamora, {Juan Carlos} and M{\aa}ns Svensson and Roland Kirschner and Ibai Olariaga and Svengunnar Ryman and Parra, {Luis Alberto} and J{\'o}zsef Geml and Anna Rosling and Slavom{\'i}r Adamč{\'i}k and Teuvo Ahti and Aime, {M. Catherine} and Ainsworth, {A. Martyn} and L{\'a}szl{\'o} Albert and Edgardo Albert{\'o} and {Alt{\'e}s Garc{\'i}a}, Alberto and Dmitry Ageev and Reinhard Agerer and Bego{\~n}a Aguirre-hudson and Joe Ammirati and Harry Andersson and Claudio Angelini and Vladim{\'i}r Anton{\'i}n and Takayuki Aoki and Andr{\'e} Aptroot and Didier Argaud and {Arguello Sosa}, {Blanca Imelda} and Arne Aronsen and Ulf Arup and Bita Asgari and Boris Assyov and Violeta Atienza and Ditte Bandini and Baptista-ferreira, {Jo{\~a}o Lu{\'i}s} and Hans-otto Baral and Tim Baroni and Barreto, {Robert Weingart} and Henry Beker and Ann Bell and Jean-michel Bellanger and Francesco Bell{\`u} and Martin Bemmann and Mika Bendiksby and Egil Bendiksen and Katriina Bendiksen and Lajos Benedek and Anna B{\'e}rešov{\'a}-guttov{\'a} and Franz Berger and Reinhard Berndt and Annarosa Bernicchia and Biketova, {Alona Yu.} and Enrico Bizio and Curtis Bjork and Teun Boekhout and David Boertmann and Tanja B{\"o}hning and Florent Boittin and Boluda, {Carlos G.} and Boomsluiter, {Menno W.} and Jan Borovička and Brandrud, {Tor Erik} and Uwe Braun and Irwin Brodo and Tatiana Bulyonkova and {Burdsall Jr.}, {Harold H.} and Bart Buyck and Burgaz, {Ana Rosa} and Vicent Calatayud and Philippe Callac and Emanuele Campo and Massimo Candusso and Brigitte Capoen and Joaquim Carb{\'o} and Matteo Carbone and Casta{\~n}eda-ruiz, {Rafael F.} and Castellano, {Michael A.} and Jie Chen and Philippe Clerc and Giovanni Consiglio and Gilles Corriol and R{\'e}gis Courtecuisse and Ana Crespo and Cathy Cripps and Crous, {Pedro W.} and {Da Silva}, {Gladstone Alves} and {Da Silva}, Meiriele and Marjo Dam and Nico Dam and Frank D{\"a}mmrich and Kanad Das and Linda Davies and {De Crop}, Eske and {De Kesel}, Andre and {De Lange}, Ruben and {De Madrignac Bonzi}, B{\'a}rbara and {Dela Cruz}, {Thomas Edison E.} and Lynn Delgat and Vincent Demoulin and Desjardin, {Dennis E.} and Paul Diederich and B{\'a}lint Dima and Dios, {Maria Martha} and Divakar, {Pradeep Kumar} and Clovis Douanla-meli and Brian Douglas and Drechsler-santos, {Elisandro Ricardo} and Dyer, {Paul S.} and Ursula Eberhardt and Damien Ertz and Fernando Esteve-ravent{\'o}s and {Etayo Salazar}, {Javier Angel} and Vera Evenson and Guillaume Eyssartier and Edit Farkas and Alain Favre and Fedosova, {Anna G.} and Mario Filippa and P{\'e}ter Finy and Adam Flakus and Sim{\'o}n Fos and Jacques Fournier and Andr{\'e} Fraiture and Paolo Franchi and {Franco Molano}, {Ana Esperanza} and Gernot Friebes and Andreas Frisch and Alan Fryday and Giuliana Furci and {Gal{\'a}n M{\'a}rquez}, Ricardo and Matteo Garbelotto and Garc{\'i}a-mart{\'i}n, {Joaquina Mar{\'i}a} and {Garc{\'i}a Ot{\'a}lora}, {M{\'o}nica A.} and {Garc{\'i}a S{\'a}nchez}, Dania and Alain Gardiennet and Sigisfredo Garnica and {Garrido Benavent}, Isaac and Genevieve Gates and Gerlach, {Alice Da Cruz Lima} and Masoomeh Ghobad-nejhad and {B. Gibertoni}, Tatiana and Tine Grebenc and Irmgard Greilhuber and Bella Grishkan and Groenewald, {Johannes Z.} and Martin Grube and G{\'e}rald Gruhn and C{\'e}cile Gueidan and Gro Gulden and Gusm{\~a}o, {Luis Fp} and Josef Hafellner and Michel Hairaud and Marek Halama and Nils Hallenberg and Halling, {Roy E.} and Karen Hansen and Harder, {Christoffer Bugge} and Jacob Heilmann-clausen and Stip Helleman and Alain Henriot and Margarita Hernandez-restrepo and Rapha{\"e}l Herve and Caroline Hobart and Mascha Hoffmeister and Klaus H{\o}iland and Jan Holec and H{\aa}kon Holien and Karen Hughes and Vit Hubka and Seppo Huhtinen and Boris Ivančević and Marian Jagers and Walter Jaklitsch and Annaelise Jansen and Jayawardena, {Ruvishika S.} and Jeppesen, {Thomas Stjernegaard} and Mikael Jeppson and Peter Johnston and J{\o}rgensen, {Per Magnus} and Ingvar K{\"a}rnefelt and Kalinina, {Liudmila B.} and Gintaras Kantvilas and Mitko Karadelev and Taiga Kasuya and Ivona Kautmanov{\'a} and Kerrigan, {Richard W.} and Martin Kirchmair and Anna Kiyashko and Knapp, {D{\'a}niel G.} and Henning Knudsen and Kerry Knudsen and Tommy Knutsson and Miroslav Kolař{\'i}k and Urmas K{\~o}ljalg and Alica Košuthov{\'a} and Attila Koszka and Heikki Kotiranta and Vera Kotkova and Ondřej Koukol and Jiř{\'i} Kout and Kov{\'a}cs, {G{\'a}bor M.} and Martin Kř{\'i}ž and {\AA}sa Kruys and Viktor Kučera and Linas Kudzma and Francisco Kuhar and Martin Kukwa and Kumar, {T. K. Arun} and Vladim{\'i}r Kunca and Ivana Kušan and Kuyper, {Thomas W.} and Carlos Lado and Thomas L{\ae}ss{\o}e and Patrice Lain{\'e} and Ewald Langer and Elle Larsson and Karl-Henrik Larsson and Gary Laursen and Christian Lechat and Serena Lee and Lendemer, {James C.} and Laura Levin and Uwe Lindemann and H{\aa}kan Lindstr{\"o}m and Xingzhong Liu and {Llarena Hernandez}, {Regulo Carlos} and Esteve Llop and Csaba Locsm{\'a}ndi and Lodge, {Deborah Jean} and Michael Loizides and L{\'a}szl{\'o} Lők{\"o}s and Jennifer Luangsa-ard and Matthias L{\"u}deritz and Thorsten Lumbsch and Matthias Lutz and Dan Mahoney and Ekaterina Malysheva and Vera Malysheva and Patinjareveettil Manimohan and Yasmina Marin-felix and Guilhermina Marques and Rub{\'e}n Mart{\'i}nez-gil and Guy Marson and Gerardo Mata and Matheny, {P. Brandon} and Mathiassen, {Geir Harald} and Neven Matočec and Helmut Mayrhofer and Mehdi Mehrabi and Ireneia Melo and Armin Mešić and Methven, {Andrew S.} and Sigvard Svensson and Arne Thell and Stefan Ekman",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.01.10",
language = "English",
volume = "9",
pages = "167--175",
journal = "IMA Fungus",
issn = "2210-6340",
publisher = "International Mycological Association",
number = "1",