Contribution of mitral annular excursion and shape dynamics to total left ventricular volume change

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The mitral annulus (MA) has a complex shape and motion, and its excursion has been correlated to left ventricular (LV) function. During the cardiac cycle the annulus' excursion encompasses a volume that is part of the total LV volume change during both filling and emptying. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of MA excursion and shape variation to total LV volume change. Nine healthy subjects aged 56 +/- 11 (means +/- SD) years underwent transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). The MA was outlined in all time frames, and a four-dimensional (4-D) Fourier series was fitted to the MA coordinates (3-D+time) and divided into segments. The annular excursion volume (AEV) was calculated based on the temporally integrated product of the segments' area and their incremental excursion. The 3-D LV volumes were calculated by tracing the endocardial border in six coaxial planes. The AEV (10 +/- 2 ml) represented 19 +/- 3% of the total LV stroke volume (52 +/- 12 ml). The AEV correlated strongly with LV stroke volume (r = 0.73; P < 0.05). Peak MA area occurred during middiastole, and 91 +/- 7% of reduction in area from peak to minimum occurred before the onset of LV systole. The excursion of the MA accounts for an important portion of the total LV filling and emptying in humans. These data suggest an atriogenic influence on MA physiology and also a sphincter-like action of the MA that may facilitate ventricular filling and aid competent valve closure. This 4-D TEE method is the first to allow noninvasive measurement of AEV and may be used to investigate the impact of physiological and pathological conditions on this important aspect of LV performance.


  • C Carlhäll
  • L Wigström
  • Einar Heiberg
  • M Karlsson
  • A F Bolger
  • E Nylander
Enheter & grupper

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Fysiologi
Sidor (från-till)H1836-H1841
TidskriftAmerican Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology
StatusPublished - 2004
Peer review utfördJa