Detailed ECG analysis of atrial repolarization in humans.
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INTRODUCTION: Data on human atrial repolarization are scarce since the QRS complex normally obscures its ECG trace. In the present study, consecutive patients with third-degree AV block were studied to better describe the human Ta wave. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty patients (mean age 75 years, 17 men) were included. All anti-arrhythmic drugs were discontinued before ECG recording. Standard 12-lead ECGs were recorded, transformed to orthogonal leads and studied using signal-averaged P wave analysis. The average P wave duration was 124 +/- 16 ms. The PTa duration was 449 +/- 55 ms (corrected PTa 512 +/- 60 ms) and the Ta duration (P wave end to Ta wave end) was 323 +/- 56 ms. The polarity of the Ta wave was opposite to that of the P wave in all leads. The Ta peaks were located at 196 +/- 55 ms in Lead Y, 216 +/- 50 ms in Lead X, and 335 +/- 92 in Lead Z. No correlation was found between P wave duration and Ta duration, or between Ta peak amplitude and Ta duration. The morphology of the Ta wave was similar regardless of the interatrial conduction. CONCLUSIONS: The Ta wave has the opposite polarity, and the duration is generally two to three times that, of the P wave. Although the Ta peak may occasionally be located in the PQ interval during normal AV conduction, it is unlikely that enough information can be obtained from analysis of this segment to differentiate normal from abnormal atrial repolarization. Hence, an algorithm for QRST cancellation during sinus rhythm is needed to further improve analysis.