Double-Thinking and Contradictory Arrangements in Iranian Law and Society

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift


Although thinking double thoughts and living dual lives are not specifically Iranian traits, Iranians have nevertheless become more susceptible to them for historical reasons, which may be traced back to when Persians became Muslims. The gradual normalization of double-thinking over the centuries has given rise to social and political patterns of behavior and institutional arrangements which oscillate between opposing regimes of truths and different sets of ethical concerns, often without merging them into a new process. Once double-thinking is normalized at the level of society, it helps people to cope with the cognitive dissonance they experience in circumstances where it is difficult to change attitude and behavior. It also affects the organization of society by making contradictory arrangements appear normal. It promotes reflexive thinking and subversive action as much as it facilitates misrecognition of socio-political suppression and legitimization of symbolic violence. This state of affairs generates a form of modernity which appears, at least on the surface, to be comfortable with contradictory social arrangements, while deep down it remains ill at ease with its inner contradictions.


  • Reza Banakar
Enheter & grupper

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Juridik och samhälle


  • Iran, Law, Shari'a, Shi'ism, Constitution, Maslahat-e Nezam, Cognitive dissonance, doublethink, secularism, Modernity, Legitimacy, Legal System
Sidor (från-till)6-33
Antal sidor27
TidskriftDigest of Middle East Studies
Utgåva nummer1
StatusPublished - 2018 maj
Peer review utfördJa

Relaterad forskningsoutput

Reza Banakar & Ziaee Keyvan, 2019, (Accepted/In press) Lawyers in 21st Century: Vol1: National Reports. Richard, A., Hammerslev, O., Sommerlad, H. & Schultz, U. (red.). 1 uppl. Oxford: Hart Publishing Ltd, Vol. 1.

Forskningsoutput: Kapitel i bok/rapport/Conference proceedingKapitel samlingsverk

Reza Banakar & Ziaee Keyvan, 2018 jun 26, I: Iranian Studies. 51, 5, s. 717-746 29 s.

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

Reza Banakar, 2015 dec 20, I.B. Tauris. 304 s.

Forskningsoutput: Bok/rapportBok

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Related projects

Reza Banakar & Ziaee Keyvan


Projekt: Forskning

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