Environmental influences on familial resemblance for drug abuse in first-cousin pairs: a Swedish national study

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Environmental influences on familial resemblance for drug abuse in first-cousin pairs: a Swedish national study. / Kendler, K. S.; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan.

I: Psychological Medicine, Vol. 44, Nr. 2, 2014, s. 371-379.

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

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T1 - Environmental influences on familial resemblance for drug abuse in first-cousin pairs: a Swedish national study

AU - Kendler, K. S.

AU - Ohlsson, Henrik

AU - Sundquist, Kristina

AU - Sundquist, Jan

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Background Using three independent methods, prior studies in Swedish sibling pairs indicate that environmental factors contribute substantially to familial aggregation for drug abuse (DA). Could we replicate these results in cousin pairs? Method Using multiple Swedish public databases (1964-2011), we defined DA using medical, legal or pharmacy registry records and examined concordance in full cousin pairs as a function of age differences, younger-older relationships and geographical proximity while growing up. Results Replicating prior results in siblings, cousin pairs were significantly more similar in their history of DA if they were (i) closer versus more distant in age and (ii) grew up in high versus low geographical proximity to one another. Furthermore, controlling for background factors, having an older cousin with DA conveys a greater risk for DA than having a younger drug-abusing cousin. The greater transmission of DA from older to younger versus younger to older cousin was more prominent in pairs who grew up close to one another. In age difference and geographical proximity analyses, effects were consistently strongest in male-male cousin pairs. In analyses of older -> younger versus younger -> older transmission, effects were stronger in male-male and male-female than in female-female or female-male relative pairs. Conclusions In accord with prior results in siblings, environmental factors contribute substantially to the familial aggregation of DA in cousins and these effects are, in general, stronger in males than in females.

AB - Background Using three independent methods, prior studies in Swedish sibling pairs indicate that environmental factors contribute substantially to familial aggregation for drug abuse (DA). Could we replicate these results in cousin pairs? Method Using multiple Swedish public databases (1964-2011), we defined DA using medical, legal or pharmacy registry records and examined concordance in full cousin pairs as a function of age differences, younger-older relationships and geographical proximity while growing up. Results Replicating prior results in siblings, cousin pairs were significantly more similar in their history of DA if they were (i) closer versus more distant in age and (ii) grew up in high versus low geographical proximity to one another. Furthermore, controlling for background factors, having an older cousin with DA conveys a greater risk for DA than having a younger drug-abusing cousin. The greater transmission of DA from older to younger versus younger to older cousin was more prominent in pairs who grew up close to one another. In age difference and geographical proximity analyses, effects were consistently strongest in male-male cousin pairs. In analyses of older -> younger versus younger -> older transmission, effects were stronger in male-male and male-female than in female-female or female-male relative pairs. Conclusions In accord with prior results in siblings, environmental factors contribute substantially to the familial aggregation of DA in cousins and these effects are, in general, stronger in males than in females.

KW - Sweden

KW - Drug abuse

KW - environmental transmission

KW - epidemiology

KW - genetics

U2 - 10.1017/S0033291713000846

DO - 10.1017/S0033291713000846

M3 - Article

C2 - 23611305

VL - 44

SP - 371

EP - 379

JO - Psychological Medicine

JF - Psychological Medicine

SN - 1469-8978

IS - 2

ER -