Epidemiology of scaphoid fractures and non-unions: A systematic review

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Epidemiology of scaphoid fractures and non-unions : A systematic review. / Jorgsholm, Peter; Ossowski, Daniel; Thomsen, Niels; Björkman, Anders.

I: Handchirurgie Mikrochirurgie Plastische Chirurgie, Vol. 52, Nr. 5, 2020, s. 374-381.

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Epidemiology of scaphoid fractures and non-unions

T2 - A systematic review

AU - Jorgsholm, Peter

AU - Ossowski, Daniel

AU - Thomsen, Niels

AU - Björkman, Anders

PY - 2020

Y1 - 2020

N2 - Background The scaphoid is the most commonly fractured carpal bone in adults as well as in children. Previous studies have reported a wide range of fracture incidences. Scaphoid fractures and non-unions in children have been sparsely investigated. Aim To perform a systematic review of the current literature on epidemiology of scaphoid fractures and non-unions in adults and children. Methods An electronic literature search was conducted investigating all studies in the literature published between January 1989 and June 23 2020. The systematic review following the PRISMA guidelines and searching in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane library databases was done in June 2020. Results 42 studies met our inclusion criteria, 6 studies were prospective, 32 were retrospective and 4 were register studies. The majority of studies relied on conventional radiographs for diagnosis. Scaphoid fractures in adults are predominately found in males with a peak incidence in the age group from 20 to 29 years. Incidence rates in males are reported from 107 to 151/100 000. Females have an earlier peak, in the age group 10 to 19 years, with an incidence from 14 to 46/100 000. Most fractures occur in the middle third of the scaphoid representing 60 69 % of cases. Scaphoid fractures in children are predominately found in boys age 12 and above, while it seldomly occur for children younger than 9 years. In adults the risk for developing a scaphoid non-union is between 2 % and 5 %, the majority affecting males and predominately located at the middle third of the scaphoid. Non-unions among children are rare and mainly due to missed or delayed diagnosis of a fracture in the middle third of the scaphoid. Conclusion This review revealed a substantial heterogeneity among studies concerning study population, diagnosis criterial and outcome measures. Currently, evidence on epidemiology for scaphoid fractures and non-unions are low.

AB - Background The scaphoid is the most commonly fractured carpal bone in adults as well as in children. Previous studies have reported a wide range of fracture incidences. Scaphoid fractures and non-unions in children have been sparsely investigated. Aim To perform a systematic review of the current literature on epidemiology of scaphoid fractures and non-unions in adults and children. Methods An electronic literature search was conducted investigating all studies in the literature published between January 1989 and June 23 2020. The systematic review following the PRISMA guidelines and searching in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane library databases was done in June 2020. Results 42 studies met our inclusion criteria, 6 studies were prospective, 32 were retrospective and 4 were register studies. The majority of studies relied on conventional radiographs for diagnosis. Scaphoid fractures in adults are predominately found in males with a peak incidence in the age group from 20 to 29 years. Incidence rates in males are reported from 107 to 151/100 000. Females have an earlier peak, in the age group 10 to 19 years, with an incidence from 14 to 46/100 000. Most fractures occur in the middle third of the scaphoid representing 60 69 % of cases. Scaphoid fractures in children are predominately found in boys age 12 and above, while it seldomly occur for children younger than 9 years. In adults the risk for developing a scaphoid non-union is between 2 % and 5 %, the majority affecting males and predominately located at the middle third of the scaphoid. Non-unions among children are rare and mainly due to missed or delayed diagnosis of a fracture in the middle third of the scaphoid. Conclusion This review revealed a substantial heterogeneity among studies concerning study population, diagnosis criterial and outcome measures. Currently, evidence on epidemiology for scaphoid fractures and non-unions are low.

KW - epidemiology

KW - incidence

KW - Scaphoid fracture

KW - scaphoid non-union

U2 - 10.1055/a-1250-8190

DO - 10.1055/a-1250-8190

M3 - Article

C2 - 32992390

AN - SCOPUS:85092403332

VL - 52

SP - 374

EP - 381

JO - Handchirurgie Mikrochirurgie Plastische Chirurgie

JF - Handchirurgie Mikrochirurgie Plastische Chirurgie

SN - 0722-1819

IS - 5

ER -