Ethanol intake and risk of lung cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)

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title = "Ethanol intake and risk of lung cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)",
abstract = "Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), the authors examined the association of ethanol intake at recruitment (1,119 cases) and mean lifelong ethanol intake (887 cases) with lung cancer. Information on baseline and past alcohol consumption, lifetime tobacco smoking, diet, and the anthropometric characteristics of 478,590 participants was collected between 1992 and 2000. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios and 95{\%} confidence intervals. Overall, neither ethanol intake at recruitment nor mean lifelong ethanol intake was significantly associated with lung cancer. However, moderate intake (5-14.9 g/day) at recruitment (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.76, 95{\%} confidence interval (CI): 0.63, 0.90) and moderate mean lifelong intake (HR = 0.80, 95{\%} CI: 0.66, 0.97) were associated with a lower lung cancer risk in comparison with low consumption (0.1-4.9 g/day). Compared with low intake, a high (>= 60 g/day) mean lifelong ethanol intake tended to be related to a higher risk of lung cancer (HR = 1.29, 95{\%} CI: 0.93, 1.74), but high intake at recruitment was not. Although there was no overall association between ethanol intake and risk of lung cancer, the authors cannot rule out a lower risk for moderate consumption and a possibly increased risk for high lifelong consumption.",
keywords = "lung neoplasms, cohort studies, ethanol, alcohol drinking",
author = "Sabine Rohrmann and Jakob Linseisen and Boshuizen, {Hendriek C.} and John Whittaker and Antonio Agudo and Paolo Vineis and Paolo Boffetta and Jensen, {Majken K.} and Anja Olsen and Kim Overvad and Anne Tjonneland and Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault and Francoise Clavel-Chapelon and Bergmann, {Manuela M.} and Heiner Boeing and Naomi Allen and Tim Key and Sheila Bingham and Kay-Tee Khaw and Georgia Kyriazi and Stavroula Soukara and Antonia Trichopoulou and Salvatore Panico and Domenico Palli and Sabina Sieri and Rosario Tumino and Peeters, {Petra H. M.} and Bueno-de-Mesquita, {H. Bas} and Buchner, {Frederike L.} and Gram, {Inger Torhild} and Eiliv Lund and Eva Ardanaz and Maria-Dolores Chirlaque and Miren Dorronsoro and {Sanchez Perez}, Maria-Jose and Quiros, {Jose R.} and G{\"o}ran Berglund and Lars Janzon and Torgny Rasmuson and Lars Weinehall and Pietro Ferrari and Mazda Jenab and Teresa Norat and Elio Riboli",
year = "2006",
doi = "10.1093/aje/kwj326",
language = "English",
volume = "164",
pages = "1103--1114",
journal = "American journal of hygiene",
issn = "0002-9262",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "11",