Fast, rugged and sensitive ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for analysis of cyanotoxins in raw water and drinking water-First findings of anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins and microcystin variants in Swedish source waters and infiltration ponds.

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Freshwater blooms of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) in source waters are generally composed of several different strains with the capability to produce a variety of toxins. The major exposure routes for humans are direct contact with recreational waters and ingestion of drinking water not efficiently treated. The ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry based analytical method presented here allows simultaneous analysis of 22 cyanotoxins from different toxin groups, including anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, nodularin and microcystins in raw water and drinking water. The use of reference standards enables correct identification of toxins as well as precision of the quantification and due to matrix effects, recovery correction is required. The multi-toxin group method presented here, does not compromise sensitivity, despite the large number of analytes. The limit of quantification was set to 0.1μg/L for 75% of the cyanotoxins in drinking water and 0.5μg/L for all cyanotoxins in raw water, which is compliant with the WHO guidance value for microcystin-LR. The matrix effects experienced during analysis were reasonable for most analytes, considering the large volume injected into the mass spectrometer. The time of analysis, including lysing of cell bound toxins, is less than three hours. Furthermore, the method was tested in Swedish source waters and infiltration ponds resulting in evidence of presence of anatoxin, homo-anatoxin, cylindrospermopsin and several variants of microcystins for the first time in Sweden, proving its usefulness.


  • Heidi Pekar
  • Erik Westerberg
  • Oscar Bruno
  • Ants Lääne
  • Kenneth M Persson
  • L Fredrik Sundström
  • Anna-Maria Thim
Enheter & grupper
Externa organisationer
  • Sydvatten AB

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Vattenteknik
Sidor (från-till)265-276
TidskriftJournal of chromatography. A
StatusPublished - 2016
Peer review utfördJa