Fate of citalopram during water treatment with O(3), ClO(2), UV and fenton oxidation
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In the present study we investigate the fate of citalopram (CIT) at neutral pH using advanced water treatment technologies that include O(3), ClO(2) oxidation, UV irradiation and Fenton oxidation. The ozonation resulted in 80% reduction after 30min treatment. Oxidation with ClO(2) removed>90% CIT at a dosage of 0.1mgL(-1). During UV irradiation 85% reduction was achieved after 5min, while Fenton with addition of 14mgL(-1) (Fe(2+)) resulted in 90% reduction of CIT. During these treatment experiments transformation products (TPs) were formed from CIT, where five compounds were identified by using high resolution and tandem mass spectrometry. Among these desmethyl-citalopram and citalopram N-oxide have been previously identified as human metabolites, while three are novel and published here for the first time. The three TPs are a hydroxylated dimethylamino-side chain derivative, a butyrolactone derivative and a defluorinated derivative of CIT.