First comprehensive tool for screening pain in Parkinson's disease: the King's Parkinson's Disease Pain Questionnaire

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title = "First comprehensive tool for screening pain in Parkinson's disease: the King's Parkinson's Disease Pain Questionnaire",
abstract = "Background and purpose: Pain is highly prevalent in Parkinson's disease (PD), impacting patients{\textquoteright} ability, mood and quality of life. Detecting the presence of pain in its multiple modalities is necessary for adequate personalized management of PD. A 14-item, PD-specific, patient-based questionnaire (the King's Parkinson's Disease Pain Questionnaire, KPPQ) was designed corresponding to the rater-based KPP Scale (KPPS). The present multicentre study was aimed at testing the validity of this screening tool. Methods: First, a comparison between the KPPQ scores of patients and matched controls was performed. Next, convergent validity, reproducibility (test–retest) and diagnostic performance of the questionnaire were analysed. Results: Data from 300 patients and 150 controls are reported. PD patients declared significantly more pain symptoms than controls (3.96 ± 2.56 vs. 2.17 ± 1.39; P < 0.0001). The KPPQ convergent validity was high with KPPS total score (rS = 0.80) but weak or moderate with other pain assessments. Test–retest reliability was satisfactory with kappa values ≥0.65 except for item 5, Dyskinetic pains (κ = 0.44), and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the KPPQ total score was 0.98. After the scores of the KPPS were adapted for screening (0, no symptom; ≥1, symptom present), a good agreement was found between the KPPQ and the KPPS (ICC = 0.88). A strong correlation (rS = 0.80) between the two instruments was found. The diagnostic parameters of the KPPQ were very satisfactory as a whole, with a global accuracy of 78.3%–98.3%. Conclusions: These results suggest that the KPPQ is a useful, reliable and valid screening instrument for pain in PD to advance patient-related outcomes.",
keywords = "assessment, King's Parkinson's Disease Pain Questionnaire, pain, Parkinson's disease, screening, validation",
author = "P. Martinez-Martin and Rizos, {A. M.} and J. Wetmore and A. Antonini and P. Odin and S. Pal and R. Sophia and C. Carroll and D. Martino and C. Falup-Pecurariu and B. Kessel and T. Andrews and D. Paviour and C. Trenkwalder and Chaudhuri, {K. R.} and EUROPAR and {MDS Non-motor PD Study Group}",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1111/ene.13691",
language = "English",
volume = "25",
pages = "1255--1261",
journal = "European Journal of Neurology",
issn = "1351-5101",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "10",