Formal Subdivision of the Holocene Series/Epoch: A Summary

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title = "Formal Subdivision of the Holocene Series/Epoch: A Summary",
abstract = "The Holocene Series/Epoch is the most recent series/epoch in the geological timescale, spanning the interval from 11,700 yr to the present day. Together with the subadjacent Pleistocene, it comprises the Quaternary System/Period. The Holocene record contains diverse geomorphological, biological, climatological and archaeological evidence, within sequences that are often continuous and extremely well-preserved at decadal, annual and even seasonal resolution. As a consequence, the Holocene is perhaps the most intensively-studied series/epoch within the entire Geological Time Scale. Yet until recently little attention had been paid to a formal subdivision of the Holocene. Here we describe an initiative by the Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (SQS) of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) to develop a formal stratigraphical subdivision of the Holocene, with three new stages/ages, two underpinned by Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs in an ice core, and a third in a speleothem. These stages/ages are defined together with their equivalent subseries/subepochs. The new stages/ages are the Greenlandian with its GSSP in the Greenland NGRIP2 ice core and dated at 11,700 yr b2k (before 2000 CE); the Northgrippian with its GSSP in the Greenland NGRIP1 ice core and dated to 8236 yr b2k; and the Meghalayan, with its GSSP in a speleothem from Mawmluh Cave, northeastern India, with a date of 4250 yr b2k. This subdivision was formally ratified by the Executive Committee of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) on 14 th June 2018.",
author = "Mike Walker and Phil Gibbard and Head, {Martin J.} and Max Berkelhammer and Svante Bj{\"o}rck and Hai Cheng and Cwynar, {Les C.} and David Fisher and Vasilios Gkinis and Antony Long and John Lowe and Rewi Newnham and Rasmussen, {Sune Olander} and Harvey Weiss",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1007/s12594-019-1141-9",
language = "English",
volume = "93",
pages = "135--141",
journal = "Journal of the Geological Society of India",
issn = "0974-6889",
publisher = "Geological Society of India",
number = "2",