Glutathione S-transferase µ(GST) modifies activities of proteases and levels of cystatin C secreted by mouse retinal explants

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title = "Glutathione S-transferase µ(GST) modifies activities of proteases and levels of cystatin C secreted by mouse retinal explants",
abstract = "Purpose: In one form of human autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa and in retinal degeneration (rd1) mouse, mutation occurs in the genes encoding {\ss} subunit of rod photoreceptor cGMP phosphodiesterase. Therefore, rd1 mutant mouse is an appropriate model for human inherited retinal degeneration studies. Retinal explants are successfully cultured in serum free chemically defined R16 medium to evaluate effects of various rescue factors and retinal conditioned medium (RCM) for secreted molecules like proteases and their inhibitors. Cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C has recently been identified in rodent neuroretina and RPE. RCM of explants treated with GST were analyzed for proteases and cystatin C to explain, in part, mode of action of GST in protection of degenerating retina. Methods: Postnatal day 2 (PN2) and PN7 control (wt) and rd1 were cultured with (10 ng / ml GST) and without GST in R16 medium, respectively, for 26 and 21 days in vitro (div). Retinal extracts (RE) and RCM were analyzed by fluorometry using casein green fluorescent labeled with BODIPY–FL (Molecular Probes) for total proteases; Z–Phe–Arg–NMec or Z–Arg–Arg–NMec for cysteine proteases and by ELISA for cystatin C, respectively, for levels and secretion of proteases and cystatin C. The protein content of RE was measured. Results: Protein content (µg) of RE from wt and rd1 retinal extracts respectively increased and decreased with age. Cystatin C (ng/ml RCM) content in wt and rd1 RE increased with age (was always higher in wt) up to PN14 and then decreased but was higher than that at PN2. Progressive secretion of cystatin C by PN2 explants was lower than that by PN7 explants; and that by rd1 PN2 and PN7 explants was initially lower up to in vitro age of PN19 and subsequently it was higher than that by wt explants. Secretion of total cystatin C by PN2 and PN7 wt and rd1 explants was similar and was increased by GST. During initial stage of culture total protease activity ({Delta} F / 100 µl RCM) in RCM of rd1 PN2 and PN7 explants was higher and was decreased in GST treated explants. Conclusions: Cystatin C content and secretion by wt RE is always higher and that of proteases is lower than that of rd1. Treatment with GST increases content of cystatin C and consequently decreases that of proteases especially cysteine proteases.",
keywords = "retinal degenerations: cell biology, proteolysis, enzymes/enzyme inhibitors",
author = "Ahuja, {Sat pal} and {Ahuja Jensen}, Poonam and Romeo Caff{\'e} and Per Ekstr{\"o}m and Katarina H{\aa}kansson and Magnus Abrahamson and {van Veen}, Theo",
year = "2004",
language = "English",
volume = "45",
pages = "U352--U352",
journal = "Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science",
issn = "1552-5783",