HIPPIE: a new platform for ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at the MAX IV Laboratory

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title = "HIPPIE: a new platform for ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at the MAX IV Laboratory",
abstract = "HIPPIE is a soft X-ray beamline on the 3 GeV electron storage ring of the MAX IV Laboratory, equipped with a novel ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) instrument. The endstation is dedicated to performing in situ and operando X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments in the presence of a controlled gaseous atmosphere at pressures up to 30 mbar [1 mbar = 100 Pa] as well as under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. The photon energy range is 250 to 2200 eV in planar polarization and with photon fluxes >1012 photons s-1 (500 mA ring current) at a resolving power of greater than 10000 and up to a maximum of 32000. The endstation currently provides two sample environments: a catalysis cell and an electrochemical/liquid cell. The former allows APXPS measurements of solid samples in the presence of a gaseous atmosphere (with a mixture of up to eight gases and a vapour of a liquid) and simultaneous analysis of the inlet/outlet gas composition by online mass spectrometry. The latter is a more versatile setup primarily designed for APXPS at the solid-liquid (dip-and-pull setup) or liquid-gas (liquid microjet) interfaces under full electrochemical control, and it can also be used as an open port for ad hoc-designed non-standard APXPS experiments with different sample environments. The catalysis cell can be further equipped with an IR reflection-absorption spectrometer, allowing for simultaneous APXPS and IR spectroscopy of the samples. The endstation is set up to easily accommodate further sample environments.",
keywords = "APXPS, beamline, catalysis, in situ, IR, operando, synchrotron",
author = "Suyun Zhu and Mattia Scardamaglia and Jan Kundsen and Rami Sankari and Hamed Tarawneh and Robert Temperton and Louisa Pickworth and Filippo Cavalca and Chunlei Wang and H{\'e}lo{\"i}se Tissot and Jonas Weissenrieder and Benjamin Hagman and Johan Gustafson and Sarp Kaya and Fredrik Lindgren and Ida K{\"a}llquist and Julia Maibach and Maria Hahlin and Virginia Boix and Tamires Gallo and Foqia Rehman and Giulio D'Acunto and Joachim Schnadt and Andrey Shavorskiy",
year = "2021",
doi = "10.1107/S160057752100103X",
language = "English",
volume = "28",
pages = "624--636",
journal = "Journal of Synchrotron Radiation",
issn = "1600-5775",
publisher = "International Union of Crystallography",