Hot Exoplanet Atmospheres Resolved with Transit Spectroscopy (HEARTS): IV. A spectral inventory of atoms and molecules in the high-resolution transmission spectrum of WASP-121 b

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Abstract

Context. WASP-121 b is a hot Jupiter that was recently found to possess rich emission (day side) and transmission (limb) spectra, suggestive of the presence of a multitude of chemical species in the atmosphere. Aims. We survey the transmission spectrum of WASP-121 b for line-absorption by metals and molecules at high spectral resolution and elaborate on existing interpretations of the optical transmission spectrum observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Methods. We applied the cross-correlation technique and direct differential spectroscopy to search for sodium and other neutral and ionised atoms, TiO, VO, and SH in high-resolution transit spectra obtained with the HARPS spectrograph. We injected models assuming chemical and hydrostatic equilibrium with a varying temperature and composition to enable model comparison, and employed two bootstrap methods to test the robustness of our detections. Results. We detect neutral Mg, Na, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, and V, which we predict exists in equilibrium with a significant quantity of VO, supporting earlier observations by HST/WFC3. Non-detections of Ti and TiO support the hypothesis that Ti is depleted via a cold-trap mechanism, as has been proposed in the literature. Atomic line depths are under-predicted by hydrostatic models by a factor of 1.5 to 8, confirming recent findings that the atmosphere is extended. We predict the existence of significant concentrations of gas-phase TiO2, VO2, and TiS, which could be important absorbers at optical and near-IR wavelengths in hot Jupiter atmospheres. However, accurate line-list data are not currently available for them. We find no evidence for absorption by SH and find that inflated atomic lines can plausibly explain the slope of the transmission spectrum observed in the near-ultraviolet with HST. The Na I D lines are significantly broadened (FWHM ∼50 to 70 km s-1) and show a difference in their respective depths of ~15 scale heights, which is not expected from isothermal hydrostatic theory. If this asymmetry is of astrophysical origin, it may indicate that Na I forms an optically thin envelope, reminiscent of the Na I cloud surrounding Jupiter, or that it is hydrodynamically outflowing.

Detaljer

Författare
  • H. J. Hoeijmakers
  • J. V. Seidel
  • L. Pino
  • D. Kitzmann
  • J. P. Sindel
  • D. Ehrenreich
  • A. V. Oza
  • V. Bourrier
  • R. Allart
  • A. Gebek
  • C. Lovis
  • S. N. Yurchenko
  • N. Astudillo-Defru
  • D. Bayliss
  • H. Cegla
  • B. Lavie
  • M. Lendl
  • C. Melo
  • F. Murgas
  • V. Nascimbeni
  • Och 5 andra
  • F. Pepe
  • D. Ségransan
  • S. Udry
  • A. Wyttenbach
  • K. Heng
Enheter & grupper
Externa organisationer
  • University of Geneva
  • University of Bern
  • INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri
  • Catholic University of Leuven
  • University of St Andrews
  • ETH Zürich
  • University College London
  • Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción
  • University of Warwick
  • European Southern Observatory Santiago
  • Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
  • University of La Laguna (ULL)
  • University of Padova
  • University Grenoble Alpes
  • University of Amsterdam
Forskningsområden

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi

Nyckelord

Originalspråkengelska
ArtikelnummerA123
TidskriftAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volym641
StatusPublished - 2020
PublikationskategoriForskning
Peer review utfördJa