Housing recovery outcomes after typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines: a critical realist perspective

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Housing recovery outcomes after typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines : a critical realist perspective. / Arroyo, Ivette; Åstrand, Johnny.

I: Journal of Critical Realism, Vol. 18, Nr. 2, 2019, s. 142-168.

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Housing recovery outcomes after typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines

T2 - a critical realist perspective

AU - Arroyo, Ivette

AU - Åstrand, Johnny

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Typhoon Haiyan damaged around a million houses in the Philippines in November 2013. It especially affected the poor. Using a realist laminated ontology, this paper explains how multiple causal mechanisms triggered unexpected outcomes in the housing recovery programme in the province of Leyte. The proposed causal mechanisms were: the intentional causal agency of the Filipino power elite; the collaboration–competition dilemma among individual agents and social structures; the constraints faced by the National Housing Authority with regards to procurement and budget; unfreedoms for resilient resettlement; secondary side effects of land and resettlement policies; and the under the table practice of bribery. The combination of these multiple causal mechanisms generated emergent outcomes such as low output of permanent post-disaster housing, generic housing solutions that cannot be extended, reproduction of pre-disaster vulnerabilities, recovery of valuable land by the Filipino elite and allocation of public funding to a limited range of recipients.

AB - Typhoon Haiyan damaged around a million houses in the Philippines in November 2013. It especially affected the poor. Using a realist laminated ontology, this paper explains how multiple causal mechanisms triggered unexpected outcomes in the housing recovery programme in the province of Leyte. The proposed causal mechanisms were: the intentional causal agency of the Filipino power elite; the collaboration–competition dilemma among individual agents and social structures; the constraints faced by the National Housing Authority with regards to procurement and budget; unfreedoms for resilient resettlement; secondary side effects of land and resettlement policies; and the under the table practice of bribery. The combination of these multiple causal mechanisms generated emergent outcomes such as low output of permanent post-disaster housing, generic housing solutions that cannot be extended, reproduction of pre-disaster vulnerabilities, recovery of valuable land by the Filipino elite and allocation of public funding to a limited range of recipients.

KW - causal mechanisms

KW - critical realism

KW - Housing recovery

KW - the Philippines

KW - typhoon Haiyan

U2 - 10.1080/14767430.2019.1605667

DO - 10.1080/14767430.2019.1605667

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85065126557

VL - 18

SP - 142

EP - 168

JO - Journal of Critical Realism

JF - Journal of Critical Realism

SN - 1476-7430

IS - 2

ER -