Human thermal response with improved AVA modeling of the digits

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The arterio-venous anastomoses (AVA) play a major role in the blood circulation in the peripheral body parts. In this work, the segmental bioheat model of Salloum et al. [1] is improved to accurately predict skin blood flow rate in the hands and fingers, and the local and overall human thermal responses in transient environments. The improvements in the model include: 1) extending the artery tree to include the arterial branching to the five fingers; 2) modelling and distribution of the blood flow between the deep and superficial veins in the peripherals; 3) adjusting arteries' radii during dilation and constriction; 4) innovative modelling of AVA of the fingers. The model focus is on the accurate blood flow calculation to the different body segments proposing a better blood control mechanism through relating the arterial tree radii as well as the AVA control mechanism to cardiac output. The skin blood flow and digits' dynamic thermal response predicted by the model were compared with published experimental values on body core and skin temperatures and local skin temperatures of fingers. Good agreement was obtained with experimentally reported values on average skin, core, and finger skin temperature response of subjects exposed to gradual decrease in air temperature from 32.3°C to 13°C. The new integrated AVA model of the fingers with the bioheat model is capable of predicting digits' dynamics thermal response with better accuracy than some previous models while also incorporating the complex central and local thermoregulatory functions.


  • Wafaa Karaki
  • Nesreen Ghaddar
  • Kamel Ghali
  • Kalev Kuklane
  • Ingvar Holmér
  • Leif Vanggaard
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Sidor (från-till)41-52
Antal sidor12
TidskriftInternational Journal of Thermal Sciences
StatusPublished - 2013
Peer review utfördJa