Hypertensive encephalopathy and cerebral infarction
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Introduction: Hypertensive encephalopathy is one cause of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Hypertensive encephalopathy and cerebral infarction have only been reported in a few individual case reports. Case description: A 51-year-old woman presented with hypertensive encephalopathy. T2-weighted images from magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintense lesions in both occipital and parietal lobes. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed that this represented cytotoxic oedema and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging revealed reduced blood volume and flow. The magnetic resonance imaging was repeated 5 months later and subtotal regression of the T2-hyperintensity had occurred. However, small bilateral infarcts were seen on T1-weighted images. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging presented reduced blood volume and flow on the right side. Discussion and evaluation: The patient in this report had posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome caused by hypertensive encephalopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed bilateral cytotoxic oedema that partially resolved and resulted in small infarcts. The imaging findings are compatible with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with subtotal resolution and infarct evolution. Conclusion: The case report suggests that the presence of hypertensive encephalopathy and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome should alert clinicians and lead to prompt treatment in order to prevent cerebral damage.