Hypertensive smokers have a worse cardiovascular risk profile than non-smokers in spite of treatment - A national study in Sweden
Forskningsoutput: Tidskriftsbidrag › Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Smoking is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Studies have indicated that smoking may outweigh the benefit of blood pressure (BP) control. Our aim was to compare cardiovascular risk factors in smokers vs non-smokers from a national sample of treated hypertensives. Data were collected on smoking habits, BP control, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, diabetes, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and microalbuminuria (MA), from records of 4424 consecutive patients by 189 physicians. All technical methods were local. Treated hypertensives who smoked had microalbuminuria significantly more often than non-smokers, 26.2% vs 20.5% (p<0.05), and a higher proportion of smokers were suboptimally controlled (DBP >= 90 mmHg), 32.7% vs 25.0% (p<0.01). Smoking males had a higher prevalence of LVH (25.7% vs 20.1; p<0.05), microalbuminuria (29.7% vs 24.7%; p<0.01), and a higher proportion of subjects with uncontrolled systolic BP (>= 140 mmHg) (72.8% vs 68.9%; p<0.01). Both DBP and total cholesterol were higher in smoking vs non-smoking females. An increased prevalence of LVH and microalbuminuria was independently associated with smoking. In summary, smokers with treated hypertension show a higher proportion of LVH (men), microalbuminuria and worse diastolic BP control than non-smokers. This may hypothetically reflect either less compliance with drug treatment in smokers or that smoking impairs the pharmacological effects of antihypertensive drugs.