Impact of Rye Kernel-Based Evening Meal on Microbiota Composition of Young Healthy Lean Volunteers With an Emphasis on Their Hormonal and Appetite Regulations, and Blood Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

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Abstract

Rye kernel bread (RKB) evening meals improve glucose tolerance, enhance appetite regulation and increase satiety in healthy volunteers. These beneficial effects on metabolic responses have been shown to be associated with increased gut fermentation. The present study aimed to elucidate if RKB evening meals may cause rapid alterations in microbiota composition that might be linked to metabolic-, immune-, and appetite- parameters. Gut-brain axis interaction was also studied by relating microbiota composition to amount of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in blood plasma. Nineteen healthy volunteers, ten women and nine men aged 22–29 years, BMI < 25 (NCT02093481) participated in the study performed in a crossover design. Each person was assigned to either white wheat bread (WWB) or RKB intake as a single evening meal or three consecutive evenings. Stool and blood samples as well as subjective appetite ratings were obtained the subsequent morning after each test occasion, resulting in four independent collections per participant (n = 76). DNA was extracted from the fecal samples and V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes was sequenced using next generation sequencing technology. Higher abundance of Prevotella and Faecalibacterium with simultaneous reduction of Bacteroides spp. were observed after RKB meals compared to WWB. The associations between metabolic test variables and microbiota composition showed a positive correlation between Bacteroides and adiponectin levels, whereas only Prevotella genus was found to have positive association with plasma levels of BDNF. These novel findings in gut-brain interactions might be of importance, since decreased levels of BDNF, that plays an essential role in brain function, contribute to the pathogenesis of several major neurodisorders, including Alzheimer's. Thus, daily consumption of Faecalibacterium- and/or Prevotella-favoring meals should be investigated further for their potential to prevent neurodegenerative processes in the brain.

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Enheter & grupper
Forskningsområden

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Näringslära
Originalspråkengelska
Artikelnummer45
Sidor (från-till)1-12
Antal sidor12
Tidskrift Frontiers in Nutrition, Food Microbiology
Volym5
StatusPublished - 2018 maj 29
PublikationskategoriForskning
Peer review utfördJa