Increased vascular endothelial growth factor D is associated with atrial fibrillation and ischaemic stroke

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title = "Increased vascular endothelial growth factor D is associated with atrial fibrillation and ischaemic stroke",
abstract = "Objective: Vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) has important functions in lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis. High plasma levels of VEGF-D have been associated with incidence of heart failure. The association of VEGF-D with atrial fibrillation (AF) and stroke is unclear and we hypothesised that VEGF-D could also be associated with incidence of AF and ischaemic stroke. Methods: VEGF-D was measured in fasting blood samples of 4689 subjects (40{\%} men) without a history of AF from the Malm{\"o} Diet and Cancer Study, a prospective, population-based study in Sweden. Median age was 58 years (range 46-68). Cox regression analyses, adjusted for multiple risk factors, was used to assess AF and ischaemic stroke risk in relation to VEGF-D levels. Results: During a median follow-up time of 20.6 years, there were 637 cases of incident AF and 322 cases of first ischaemic stroke. After adjustment, VEGF-D was significantly associated with AF (HR 1.13(95{\%} CI 1.04 to 1.23) per 1 SD increase) and ischaemic stroke (HR 1.14(95{\%} CI 1.02 to 1.28) per 1 SD). The association with ischaemic stroke was explained by an increased incidence of AF-related stroke. HRs per 1 SD were 1.34 (95{\%} CI 1.04 to 1.71) for AF-related ischaemic stroke and 1.04 (95{\%} CI 0.90 to 1.19) for ischaemic stroke without AF. Conclusions: Increased VEGF-D concentrations were associated with AF and ischaemic stroke. The relationship with ischaemic stroke was more pronounced in subjects with a diagnosis of AF.",
keywords = "atrial fibrillation, epidemiology, stroke",
author = "John Berntsson and Smith, {J. Gustav} and Johnson, {Linda S.B.} and Martin S{\"o}derholm and Yan Born{\'e} and Olle Melander and Marju Orho-Melander and Jan Nilsson and Gunnar Engstr{\"o}m",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1136/heartjnl-2018-313684",
language = "English",
volume = "105",
pages = "553--558",
journal = "British Heart Journal",
issn = "1355-6037",
publisher = "BMJ Publishing Group",
number = "7",