Interleukin-6 is increased in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of community-dwelling domestic dogs with acute ischaemic stroke

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Inflammatory cytokines are potential modulators of infarct progression in acute ischaemic stroke, and are therefore possible targets for future treatment strategies. Cytokine studies in animal models of surgically induced stroke may, however, be influenced by the fact that the surgical intervention itself contributes towards the cytokine response. Community-dwelling domestic dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke, and therefore, offer the opportunity to study the cytokine response in a noninvasive set-up. The aims of this study were to investigate cytokine concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in dogs with acute ischaemic stroke and to search for correlations between infarct volume and cytokine concentrations. Blood and CSF were collected from dogs less than 72 h after a spontaneous ischaemic stroke. Infarct volumes were estimated on MRIs. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor in the plasma, CSF and brain homogenates were measured using a canine-specific multiplex immunoassay. IL-6 was significantly increased in plasma (P=0.04) and CSF (P=0.04) in stroke dogs compared with healthy controls. The concentrations of other cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor and IL-2, were unchanged. Plasma IL-8 levels correlated significantly with infarct volume (Spearman’s r=0.8, P=0.013). The findings showed increased concentrations of IL-6 in the plasma and CSF of dogs with acute ischaemic stroke comparable to humans. We believe that dogs with spontaneous stroke offer a unique, noninvasive means of studying the inflammatory processes that accompany stroke while reducing confounds that are unavoidable in experimental models.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.


  • Hanne Birgit Gredal
  • Barbara B. Thomsen
  • Antonio Boza-Serrano
  • Laurent Garosi
  • Clare Rusbridge
  • Daniel Clive Anthony
  • Arne Møller
  • Bente Finsen
  • Tomas Deierborg
  • Kate L Lambertsen
  • Mette Berendt
Enheter & grupper
Externa organisationer
  • University of Copenhagen
  • Davies Veterinary Specialists
  • Fitzpatrick Referrals
  • University of Oxford
  • Aarhus University
  • University of Southern Denmark
  • Odense University Hospital

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Medicinsk biovetenskap
  • Neurovetenskaper
Sidor (från-till)134-140
Antal sidor7
Utgåva nummer3
StatusPublished - 2017 feb 1
Peer review utfördJa