Involvement of GPI-linked ceruloplasmin in the Cu/Zn-NO-dependent degradation of glypican-1 heparan sulfate in Rat C6 glioma cells.
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The core protein of glypican-1, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked heparan sulfate proteoglycan, can bind Cu(II) or Zn(II) ions and undergo S-nitrosylation in the presence of nitric oxide. Cu(II)-to-Cu(I)-reduction supports extensive and permanent nitrosothiol formation, whereas Zn(II) ions appear to support a more limited, possibly transient one. Ascorbate induces release of nitric oxide, which catalyzes deaminative degradation of the heparan sulfate chains on the same core protein. Although free Zn(II) ions support a more limited degradation, Cu(II) ions support a more extensive self-pruning process. Here, we have investigated processing of glypican-1 in rat C6 glioma cells and the possible participation of the copper-containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked splice variant of ceruloplasmin in nitrosothiol formation. Confocal microscopy demonstrated colocalization of glypican-1 and ceruloplasmin in endosomal compartments. Ascorbate induced extensive, Zn(II)-supported heparan sulfate degradation, which could be demonstrated using a specific zinc probe. RNA interference silencing of ceruloplasmin expression reduced the extent of Zn(II)-supported degradation. In cell-free experiments, the presence of free Zn(II) ions prevented free Cu(II) ion from binding to glypican-1 and precluded extensive heparan sulfate autodegradation. However, in the presence of Cu(II)-loaded ceruloplasmin, heparan sulfate in Zn(II)-loaded glypican-1 underwent extensive, ascorbate-induced degradation. We propose that the Cu(II)-to-Cu(I)-reduction that is required for S-nitrosylation of glypican-1 can take place on ceruloplasmin and thereby ensure extensive glypican-1 processing in the presence of free Zn(II) ions.
|Enheter & grupper|
Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK
|Tidskrift||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|Status||Published - 2004|
|Peer review utförd||Ja|