Kinematics with GAIA DR2: The force of a dwarf

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift


We use Gaia DR2 astrometric and line-of-sight velocity information combined with two sets of distances obtained with a Bayesian inference method to study the 3D velocity distribution in the Milky Way disc. We search for variations in all Galactocentric cylindrical velocity components (Vφ, VR, and Vz) with Galactic radius, azimuth, and distance from the disc mid-plane. We confirm recent work showing that bulk vertical motions in the R–z plane are consistent with a combination of breathing and bending modes. In the x–y plane, we show that, although the amplitudes change, the structure produced by these modes is mostly invariant as a function of distance from the plane. Comparing to two different Galactic disc models, we demonstrate that the observed patterns can drastically change in short time intervals, showing the complexity of understanding the origin of vertical perturbations. A strong radial VR gradient was identified in the inner disc, transitioning smoothly from 16 km s−1 kpc−1 at an azimuth of 30 < φ < 45 ahead of the Sun-Galactic centre line to −16 km s−1 kpc−1 at an azimuth of −45 < φ < −30 lagging the solar azimuth. We use a simulation with no significant recent mergers to show that exactly the opposite trend is expected from a barred potential, but overestimated distances can flip this trend to match the data. Alternatively, using an N-body simulation of the Sagittarius dwarf–Milky Way interaction, we demonstrate that a major recent perturbation is necessary to reproduce the observations. Such an impact may have strongly perturbed the existing bar or even triggered its formation in the last 1–2 Gyr.


  • I. Carrillo
  • I. Minchev
  • M. Steinmetz
  • G. Monari
  • C. F.P. Laporte
  • F. Anders
  • A. B.A. Queiroz
  • C. Chiappini
  • A. Khalatyan
  • M. Martig
  • P. J. McMillan
  • B. X. Santiago
  • K. Youakim
Enheter & grupper
Externa organisationer
  • Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP)
  • University of Victoria
  • Liverpool John Moores University
  • Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
  • Laboratório Interinstitucional de E-Astronomia

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi


Sidor (från-till)797-812
Antal sidor16
TidskriftMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Utgåva nummer1
StatusPublished - 2019
Peer review utfördJa