Life-Space Mobility in Parkinson’s Disease: Associations with Motor and Non-Motor Symptoms

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title = "Life-Space Mobility in Parkinson’s Disease: Associations with Motor and Non-Motor Symptoms",
abstract = "Background: To describe life-space mobility and explore associations of motor and non-motor symptoms with life-space mobility in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD).Methods: About 164 community-dwelling persons with PD (mean age 71.6 years, 64.6{\%} men) received a postal survey and a subsequent home visit. Motor assessments included perceived walking difficulties (Walk-12G), mobility (Timed Up and Go test), motor symptoms (UPDRS-III), and freezing of gait (item 3, FOG-Qsa). Non-motor symptoms included depressive symptoms (GDS-15), pain, fatigue (NHP-EN), and global cognition (MoCA). Life-space mobility was assessed with the life-space assessment (LSA). Calculations included composite score (range 0–120; higher indicating better life-space mobility), independent life-space (range 0–5), assisted life-space (range 0–5), and maximal life-space (range0–5). Associations were analyzed with linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, and PD severity (Hoehn and Yahr).Results: Mean life-space mobility score was 72.3 (SD = 28.8). Almost all participants (90{\%}) reached the highest life-space level (beyond town). Half of these reached this level independently, while one-third were unable to move outside their bedroom without assistive devices or personal help. When adjusted for confounders, depressive symptoms, pain, and perceived walking difficulties was negatively associated with life-space mobility. In the multivariable model, only perceived walking difficulties were associated with life-space mobility.Conclusions: Our findings indicate that perceived walking difficulties should be targeted to maintain or improve life-space mobility in people with PD. Depressive symptoms and pain may also merit consideration. More research is needed to elucidate the role of environmental and personal factors for life-space mobility in PD.",
author = "Merja Rantakokko and Susanne Iwarsson and Bj{\"o}rn Slaug and Nilsson, {Maria H}",
year = "2019",
doi = "doi:10.1093/gerona/gly074",
language = "English",
volume = "74",
pages = "507–512",
journal = "Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences",
issn = "1758-535X",
publisher = "Gerontologial Society of America",
number = "4",