Long-term risk factors for suicide in suicide attempters examined at a medical emergency in patient unit: results from a 32-year follow-up study

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T1 - Long-term risk factors for suicide in suicide attempters examined at a medical emergency in patient unit

T2 - results from a 32-year follow-up study

AU - Probert-Lindström, Sara

AU - Berge, Jonas

AU - Westrin, Åsa

AU - Öjehagen, Agneta

AU - Skogman Pavulans, Katarina

PY - 2020

Y1 - 2020

N2 - OBJECTIVES: The overall aim of this study is to gain greater knowledge about the risk of suicide among suicide attempters in a very long-term perspective. Specifically, to investigate possible differences in clinical risk factors at short (≤5 years) versus long term (>5 years), with the hypothesis that risk factors differ in the shorter and longer perspective. DESIGN: Prospective study with register-based follow-up for 21-32 years. SETTING: Medical emergency inpatient unit in the south of Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 1044 individuals assessed by psychiatric consultation when admitted to medical inpatient care for attempted suicide during 1987-1998. OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: At follow-up, 37.6% of the participants had died, 7.2% by suicide and 53% of these within 5 years of the suicide attempt. A diagnosis of psychosis at baseline represented the risk factor with the highest HR at long-term follow-up, that is, >5 years, followed by major depression and a history of attempted suicide before the index attempt. The severity of a suicide attempt as measured by SIS (Suicide Intent Scale) showed a non-proportional association with the hazard for suicide over time and was a relevant risk factor for suicide only within the first 5 years after an attempted suicide. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of suicide after a suicide attempt persists for up to 32 years after the index attempt. A baseline diagnosis of psychosis or major depression or earlier suicide attempts continued to be relevant risk factors in the very long term. The SIS score is a better predictor of suicide risk at short term, that is, within 5 years than at long term. This should be considered in the assessment of suicide risk and the implementation of care for these individuals.

AB - OBJECTIVES: The overall aim of this study is to gain greater knowledge about the risk of suicide among suicide attempters in a very long-term perspective. Specifically, to investigate possible differences in clinical risk factors at short (≤5 years) versus long term (>5 years), with the hypothesis that risk factors differ in the shorter and longer perspective. DESIGN: Prospective study with register-based follow-up for 21-32 years. SETTING: Medical emergency inpatient unit in the south of Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 1044 individuals assessed by psychiatric consultation when admitted to medical inpatient care for attempted suicide during 1987-1998. OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: At follow-up, 37.6% of the participants had died, 7.2% by suicide and 53% of these within 5 years of the suicide attempt. A diagnosis of psychosis at baseline represented the risk factor with the highest HR at long-term follow-up, that is, >5 years, followed by major depression and a history of attempted suicide before the index attempt. The severity of a suicide attempt as measured by SIS (Suicide Intent Scale) showed a non-proportional association with the hazard for suicide over time and was a relevant risk factor for suicide only within the first 5 years after an attempted suicide. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of suicide after a suicide attempt persists for up to 32 years after the index attempt. A baseline diagnosis of psychosis or major depression or earlier suicide attempts continued to be relevant risk factors in the very long term. The SIS score is a better predictor of suicide risk at short term, that is, within 5 years than at long term. This should be considered in the assessment of suicide risk and the implementation of care for these individuals.

KW - depression & mood disorders

KW - psychiatry

KW - schizophrenia & psychotic disorders

KW - suicide & self-harm

U2 - 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038794

DO - 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038794

M3 - Article

C2 - 33130567

AN - SCOPUS:85095391935

VL - 10

JO - BMJ Open

JF - BMJ Open

SN - 2044-6055

IS - 10

M1 - e038794

ER -