Lower HDL-cholesterol, a known marker of cardiovascular risk, was associated with depression in type 1 diabetes: A cross sectional study

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title = "Lower HDL-cholesterol, a known marker of cardiovascular risk, was associated with depression in type 1 diabetes: A cross sectional study",
abstract = "Background: Depression, metabolic disturbances and inflammation have been linked to cardiovascular disease and mortality. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), a known marker of cardiovascular risk, have been observed in patients with major depression in psychiatric populations. Our main aim was to explore associations between depression, antidepressants, and metabolic and inflammatory variables in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A secondary aim was to explore variables associated with HDL-cholesterol. Methods: Cross-sectional design. T1D patients (n = 292, men 55{\%}, age18-59 years, diabetes duration ≥1 year) were consecutively recruited from one specialist diabetes clinic. Depression was defined as ≥8 points for Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression sub scale. Blood samples, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and data regarding medication and life style were collected from electronic health records. Non-parametric tests, multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. Results: The depression prevalence was 10 and 8{\%} used antidepressants. Median (q 1 , q 3 ) HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) was for the depressed 1.3 (1.2, 1.5) and for the non-depressed 1.6 (1.3, 1.8), p = 0.001. HDL-cholesterol levels (per mmol/l) were negatively associated with depression (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.2, p = 0.007), and the use of antidepressants was positively associated with depression (AOR 8.1, p < 0.001). No other metabolic or inflammatory variables, or life style factors, were associated with depression when adjusted for antidepressants. Abdominal obesity was associated with antidepressants in women (AOR 4.6, p = 0.029). Decreasing HDL-cholesterol levels were associated with increasing triglyceride levels (p < 0.001), increasing high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels (p = 0.021), younger age (p < 0.001), male sex (p < 0.001), and depression (p = 0.045). Conclusions: Lower HDL-cholesterol levels, known predictors of cardiovascular disease, were associated with depression in patients with T1D. The use of antidepressants was associated with abdominal obesity in women. Depression, low-grade inflammation measured as hs-CRP, higher triglycerides, male sex, and lower age were independently associated with lower HDL-cholesterol levels.",
keywords = "Antidepressants, Depression, Low-grade inflammation, Serum-lipids, Type 1 diabetes",
author = "Melin, {Eva Olga} and Thulesius, {Hans Olav} and Magnus Hillman and Ralph Svensson and Mona Landin-Olsson and Maria Thunander",
year = "2019",
month = "3",
day = "18",
doi = "10.1186/s12944-019-1009-4",
language = "English",
volume = "18",
journal = "Lipids in Health and Disease",
issn = "1476-511X",
publisher = "BioMed Central",
number = "1",