Management of aneurysm sac hygroma
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Purpose: To document the management strategies and outcome of patients diagnosed with sac hygroma following open or endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Methods: Seven men (median 68 years, range 43-79) with previous open (n=3) or endovascular (n=4) AAA repairs and increasing aneurysm diameters documented on spiral computed tomography (CT) were diagnosed with sac hygroma based on the lack of a demonstrable endoleak on CT imaging; the presence of a gelatinous, clear fluid in the sac; and a nonpulsatile sac pressure that was about one third of the systemic blood pressure. The patients were followed at regular intervals with spiral CT and percutaneous CT-guided translumbar intrasac pressure measurements. Surgical interventions were performed for sac diameter increase >5 mm or expansion-related pain. Blood samples and fluid aspirated from the sac were analyzed to detect activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. Results: Over a median 21.5-month follow-up, open fenestration with resection of the aneurysm wall or open tight wrapping of the wall around the graft in 4 patients did not prevent hygroma reoccurrence, nor did repeated punctures with aspiration of fluid in the other 3 patients. Aneurysm diameters remained unchanged during the observation period. Conclusions: Only symptomatic hygromas need be treated, but the treatment of choice remains to be established, since puncture, fenestration, or resection of the sac do not seem to be adequate.