Maternal dietary supplement use and development of islet autoimmunity in the offspring: TEDDY study

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title = "Maternal dietary supplement use and development of islet autoimmunity in the offspring: TEDDY study",
abstract = "Objective: We investigated the association between maternal use of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) supplements during pregnancy and risk of islet autoimmunity (IA) in the offspring. Methods: The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) Study is prospectively following 8676 children with increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes in Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the United States. Blood samples were collected every 3 months between 3 and 48 months of age then every 6 months thereafter to determine persistent IA. Duration, frequency, and supplement dose during pregnancy were recalled by mothers at 3 to 4 months postpartum. Cumulative intakes of supplemental vitamin D and n-3 FAs were analyzed as continuous or binary variables. We applied time-to-event analysis to study the association between maternal supplement use and IA, adjusting for country, human leukocyte antigen-DR-DQ genotype, family history of type 1 diabetes and sex. Secondary outcomes included insulin autoantibodies (IAA) or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) as the first appearing autoantibody. Results: As of February 2018, there were 747 (9.0{\%}) children with IA. Vitamin D supplement intake during pregnancy (any vs none) was not associated with risk for IA (hazard ratio [HR] 1.11; 95{\%} confidence interval [CI] 0.94, 1.31); neither was cumulative vitamin D supplement intake. Supplemental n-3 FA intake was similarly not associated with IA risk (HR: 1.19, 95{\%} CI 0.98, 1.45). Similar lack of association was observed for either IAA or GADA as the first appearing autoantibody. Conclusions: The TEDDY cohort showed no evidence of benefit regarding IA risk for vitamin D or n-3 FA supplementation during pregnancy.",
keywords = "dietary supplements, islet autoimmunity, omega-3 fatty acids, pregnancy, vitamin D",
author = "{TEDDY Study Group} and Katherine Silvis and Aronsson, {Carin A.} and Xiang Liu and Ulla Uusitalo and Jimin Yang and Roy Tamura and {\AA}ke Lernmark and Marian Rewers and William Hagopian and She, {Jin Xiong} and Olli Simell and Jorma Toppari and Anette Ziegler and Beena Akolkar and Jeffrey Krischer and Virtanen, {Suvi M.} and Norris, {Jill M.}",
year = "2018",
month = "11",
day = "8",
doi = "10.1111/pedi.12794",
language = "English",
journal = "Pediatric Diabetes",
issn = "1399-543X",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",