Meta-Analysis Investigating Associations Between Healthy Diet and Fasting Glucose and Insulin Levels and Modification by Loci Associated With Glucose Homeostasis in Data From 15 Cohorts

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title = "Meta-Analysis Investigating Associations Between Healthy Diet and Fasting Glucose and Insulin Levels and Modification by Loci Associated With Glucose Homeostasis in Data From 15 Cohorts",
abstract = "Whether loci that influence fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) levels, as identified by genome-wide association studies, modify associations of diet with FG or FI is unknown. We utilized data from 15 US and European cohort studies comprising 51,289 persons without diabetes to test whether genotype and diet interact to influence FG or FI concentration. We constructed a diet score using study-specific quartile rankings for intakes of whole grains, fish, fruits, vegetables, and nuts/seeds (favorable) and red/processed meats, sweets, sugared beverages, and fried potatoes (unfavorable). We used linear regression within studies, followed by inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis, to quantify 1) associations of diet score with FG and FI levels and 2) interactions of diet score with 16 FG-associated loci and 2 FI-associated loci. Diet score (per unit increase) was inversely associated with FG ( 0.004 mmol/L, 95 confidence interval: 0.005, 0.003) and FI ( 0.008 ln-pmol/L, 95 confidence interval: 0.009, 0.007) levels after adjustment for demographic factors, lifestyle, and body mass index. Genotype variation at the studied loci did not modify these associations. Healthier diets were associated with lower FG and FI concentrations regardless of genotype at previously replicated FG- and FI-associated loci. Studies focusing on genomic regions that do not yield highly statistically significant associations from main-effect genome-wide association studies may be more fruitful in identifying diet-gene interactions.",
keywords = "diabetes, dietary pattern, gene-environment interaction, glucose, insulin",
author = "Nettleton, {Jennifer A.} and Marie-France Hivert and Lemaitre, {Rozenn N.} and McKeown, {Nicola M.} and Dariush Mozaffarian and Toshiko Tanaka and Wojczynski, {Mary K.} and Adela Hruby and Luc Djousse and Ngwa, {Julius S.} and Follis, {Jack L.} and Maria Dimitriou and Andrea Ganna and Houston, {Denise K.} and Stavroula Kanoni and Vera Mikkila and Ani Manichaikul and Ioanna Ntalla and Frida Renstr{\"o}m and Emily Sonestedt and {van Rooij}, {Frank J. A.} and Stefania Bandinelli and {de Koning}, Lawrence and Ulrika Ericson and Neelam Hassanali and {Kiefte-de Jong}, {Jessica C.} and Lohman, {Kurt K.} and Olli Raitakari and Constantina Papoutsakis and Per Sjogren and Kathleen Stirrups and Erika Ax and Panos Deloukas and Groves, {Christopher J.} and Jacques, {Paul F.} and Ingegerd Johansson and Yongmei Liu and McCarthy, {Mark I.} and Kari North and Jorma Viikari and Zillikens, {M. Carola} and Josee Dupuis and Albert Hofman and Genovefa Kolovou and Kenneth Mukamal and Inga Prokopenko and Olov Rolandsson and Ilkka Seppala and Cupples, {L. Adrienne} and Hu, {Frank B.} and Mika Kahonen and Uitterlinden, {Andre G.} and Borecki, {Ingrid B.} and Luigi Ferrucci and Jacobs, {David R. Jr.} and Kritchevsky, {Stephen B.} and Marju Orho-Melander and Pankow, {James S.} and Terho Lehtimaki and Witteman, {Jacqueline C. M.} and Erik Ingelsson and Siscovick, {David S.} and George Dedoussis and Meigs, {James B.} and Paul Franks",
year = "2013",
doi = "10.1093/aje/kws297",
language = "English",
volume = "177",
pages = "103--115",
journal = "American journal of hygiene",
issn = "0002-9262",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "2",