Multiband modulation spectroscopy for the determination of sex and species of mosquitoes in flight

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title = "Multiband modulation spectroscopy for the determination of sex and species of mosquitoes in flight",
abstract = "We present a dual-wavelength polarimetric measurement method to distinguish species and sexes of disease transmitting mosquitoes in flight. By measuring co- and de-polarized backscattered light at 808 and 1550nm, the degree of linear polarization, wingbeat frequency, reflectance, spectral ratio and glossiness of mosquitoes can be retrieved. Body and wing contributions to these signals can be separated. Whereas the optical cross section is sensitive to the aspect of observation, thus the heading direction of the insect in flight, we demonstrate that polarimetric- and spectral-band ratios are largely invariant to the aspect of observation. We show that wing glossiness, as well as wing- and body-spectral ratios are particularly efficient in distinguishing Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles arabiensis, 2 closely related species of malaria vectors. Spectral and polarimetric ratios relate to microstructural and melanization features of the wing and body of these species. We conclude that multiband modulation spectroscopy is a useful expansion of the parameter space that can be used to improve the specificity of entomological lidars.",
keywords = "Disease vectors, Entomological lidar, Modulation spectroscopy, Species classification, Wing interference patterns",
author = "Alem Gebru and Samuel Jansson and Rickard Ignell and Carsten Kirkeby and Prangsma, {Jord C.} and Mikkel Brydegaard",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1002/jbio.201800014",
language = "English",
volume = "11",
journal = "Journal of Biophotonics",
issn = "1864-063X",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons",
number = "8",