Multiradionuclide evidence for an extreme solar proton event around 2,610 B.P. (∼660 BC)

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title = "Multiradionuclide evidence for an extreme solar proton event around 2,610 B.P. (∼660 BC)",
abstract = "Recently, it has been confirmed that extreme solar proton events can lead to significantly increased atmospheric production rates of cosmogenic radionuclides. Evidence of such events is recorded in annually resolved natural archives, such as tree rings [carbon-14 ( 14 C)] and ice cores [beryllium-10 ( 10 Be), chlorine-36 ( 36 Cl)]. Here, we show evidence for an extreme solar event around 2,610 years B.P. (∼660 BC) based on high-resolution 10 Be data from two Greenland ice cores. Our conclusions are supported by modeled 14 C production rates for the same period. Using existing 36 Cl ice core data in conjunction with 10 Be, we further show that this solar event was characterized by a very hard energy spectrum. These results indicate that the 2,610-years B.P. event was an order of magnitude stronger than any solar event recorded during the instrumental period and comparable with the solar proton event of AD 774/ 775, the largest solar event known to date. The results illustrate the importance of multiple ice core radionuclide measurements for the reliable identification of short-term production rate increases and the assessment of their origins.",
keywords = "Ice cores, Radionuclides, Solar proton events, Solar storms",
author = "Paschal O’Hare and Florian Mekhaldi and Florian Adolphi and Grant Raisbeck and Ala Aldahan and Emma Anderberg and J{\"u}rg Beer and Marcus Christl and Simon Fahrni and Synal, {Hans Arno} and Junghun Park and G{\"o}ran Possnert and John Southon and Edouard Bard and Raimund Muscheler",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1073/pnas.1815725116",
language = "English",
volume = "116",
pages = "5961--5966",
journal = "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences",
issn = "1091-6490",
publisher = "National Acad Sciences",
number = "13",