New approaches to the analysis of enzymatically hydrolyzed methyl cellulose. Part 2. Comparison of various enzyme preparations
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In this part of our studies, dealing with new approaches to the analysis of enzymatically hydrolyzed methyl cellulose, five different enzymes or enzyme preparations containing endoglucanases (from Bacillus agaradhaerens Cel 5A, Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma Viride, and two obtained from Trichoderma longibrachiatum) were used to hydrolyze six different methyl celluloses (MCs). The main goal was to investigate whether enzymes could be used for determination of the heterogeneity of the substituent distribution along the cellulose chain. To obtain information about the heterogeneity, it was necessary to gather information on how the enzymes affect hydrolysis. Size exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering and refractive index detection (SEC-MALS/RI) was used to estimate the molar mass distribution of the MCs before and after hydrolysis. A novel internal standard addition method in combination with electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-ITMS) was used to determine the amount of formed oligomers. Two MCs, one with a degree of substitution (DS) of 1.8 and one with DS 1.3, were hydrolyzed with all of the five enzymes. The yield of summarized di- and trisaccharides was approximately 2% of the hydrolysis products for the MC with DS 1.8, whereas the product mixture, obtained from a MC with a DS of 1.3, contained 7-16% di- and trisaccharides. By a novel sample preparation method in combination with ESI-IT tandem MS, outlined in part 1 of this work, it was shown that the enzymes produced oligomers with the reducing end bearing no or only one substituent. Comparison of the methyl pattern at the nonreducing ends of the dimers and trimers indicated that the -2 subsite of the active complex is less tolerant than subsites -3 and +1. All enzymes had similar general selectivity toward the methyl substituents but also showed some differences. From both SEC-MALS/RI and ESI-ITMS, differences with respect to substituent distribution of MCs could be recognized but not for each enzyme used. Basic considerations for enzymatic hydrolysis and analysis of methyl cellulose were listed as a consequence of the results from the work.