Nitrosamines and Heme Iron and Risk of Prostate Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

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Background: The evidence about nitrosamines and heme iron intake and cancer risk is limited, despite the biologic plausibility of the hypothesis that these factors might increase cancer risk. We investigated the association between dietary nitrosamines and heme iron and the risk of prostate cancer among participants of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Data on food consumption and complete follow-up for cancer occurrence was available for 139,005 men, recruited in 8 European countries. Estimates of HRs were obtained by proportional hazard models, stratified by age at recruitment, and study center, and adjusted for total energy intake, smoking status, marital status, dairy products, educational level, and body mass index. Results: After a mean follow-up of 10 years, 4,606 participants were diagnosed with first incident prostate cancer. There was no overall association between prostate cancer risk and nitrosamines exposure (preformed and endogenous) or heme iron intake (HR for a doubling of intake: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.98-1.03 for N-Nitrosodimethlyamine, 0.95; 95% CI: 0.88-1.03 for endogenous Nitrosocompounds, and 1.00; 95 CI: 0.97-1.03 for heme iron). Conclusions and Impact: Our findings do not support an effect of nitrosamines (endogenous and exogenous) and heme iron intake on prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 21(3); 547-51. (C) 2012 AACR.


  • Paula G. Jakszyn
  • Naomi E. Allen
  • Leila Lujan-Barroso
  • Carlos A. Gonzalez
  • Timothy J. Key
  • Ana Fonseca-Nunes
  • Anne Tjonneland
  • Nina Fons-Johnsen
  • Kim Overvad
  • Birgit Teucher
  • Kuanrong Li
  • Heiner Boeing
  • Antonia Trichopoulou
  • Eleni Oikonomou
  • Maria Sarantopoulou
  • Calogero Saieva
  • Vittorio Krogh
  • Rosario Tumino
  • Fulvio Ricceri
  • H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita
  • Jose M. Huerta
  • Eva Ardanaz
  • Marcial V. Arguelles
  • Esther Molina-Montes
  • Nerea Larranaga
  • Mattias Johansson
  • Paer Stattin
  • Kay-Tee Khaw
  • Mazda Jenab
  • Veronika Fedirko
  • Elio Riboli
Enheter & grupper

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Cancer och onkologi
Sidor (från-till)547-551
TidskriftCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention
StatusPublished - 2012
Peer review utfördJa