Notified but Unaware: Third Party Tracking Online

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

Standard

Notified but Unaware: Third Party Tracking Online. / Larsson, Stefan; Jensen-Urstad, Anders; Heintz, Fredrik.

I: Critical Analysis of Law, Vol. 8, Nr. 1, 02.04.2021, s. 101-120.

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

Harvard

APA

CBE

MLA

Larsson, Stefan, Anders Jensen-Urstad och Fredrik Heintz. "Notified but Unaware: Third Party Tracking Online". Critical Analysis of Law. 2021, 8(1). 101-120.

Vancouver

Larsson S, Jensen-Urstad A, Heintz F. Notified but Unaware: Third Party Tracking Online. Critical Analysis of Law. 2021 apr 2;8(1):101-120.

Author

Larsson, Stefan ; Jensen-Urstad, Anders ; Heintz, Fredrik. / Notified but Unaware: Third Party Tracking Online. I: Critical Analysis of Law. 2021 ; Vol. 8, Nr. 1. s. 101-120.

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Notified but Unaware: Third Party Tracking Online

AU - Larsson, Stefan

AU - Jensen-Urstad, Anders

AU - Heintz, Fredrik

N1 - Stefan Larsson, Associate Professor in Technology and Social Change at LTH, Lund University, Sweden; Anders Jensen-Urstad, Dataskydd.net; Fredrik Heintz, Associate Professor in Computer Science at Linköping University, Sweden. Acknowledgements: This work was partially supported by i) the Wallenberg AI, Autonomous Systems and Software Program – Humanities and Society (WASP-HS) funded by the Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation and the Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg Foundation, ii) the Swedish Competition Authority, as well as iii) The Swedish Retail and Wholesale Council.

PY - 2021/4/2

Y1 - 2021/4/2

N2 - Drawing from conceptual studies on transparency, particularly with regard to market complexity, user literacy and resignation, this article studies and analyzes the practices of third-party data collection online. Empirically, we map third-party trackers on a sample of Swedish websites in five sectors (media, retail, banking/insurance, public sector, and health), and the trackers are compared to lists of known trackers to determine their main purpose. These results are then used in digital focus groups divided into high-trust and low-trust individuals, to better understand how everyday consumers perceive and cope with the tracking infrastructure. The main results indicate that third-party tracking is omnipresent online, particularly for media and retail sites, showing that data-driven markets depend on the collection, sharing and trade of consumers’ personal data. Furthermore, despite regulatory provisions promoting clearer notifications and designs within the EU, many users are still highly unaware of the data collection practices and their underlying purposes. The results indicate a weak consent base for data collection and a market structure and data collecting practices that are highly non-transparent. We recommend more active supervisory authorities, and more stringent requirements primarily in relation to the obscure ad tech infrastructures to improve transparency and promote consumer awareness.

AB - Drawing from conceptual studies on transparency, particularly with regard to market complexity, user literacy and resignation, this article studies and analyzes the practices of third-party data collection online. Empirically, we map third-party trackers on a sample of Swedish websites in five sectors (media, retail, banking/insurance, public sector, and health), and the trackers are compared to lists of known trackers to determine their main purpose. These results are then used in digital focus groups divided into high-trust and low-trust individuals, to better understand how everyday consumers perceive and cope with the tracking infrastructure. The main results indicate that third-party tracking is omnipresent online, particularly for media and retail sites, showing that data-driven markets depend on the collection, sharing and trade of consumers’ personal data. Furthermore, despite regulatory provisions promoting clearer notifications and designs within the EU, many users are still highly unaware of the data collection practices and their underlying purposes. The results indicate a weak consent base for data collection and a market structure and data collecting practices that are highly non-transparent. We recommend more active supervisory authorities, and more stringent requirements primarily in relation to the obscure ad tech infrastructures to improve transparency and promote consumer awareness.

KW - cookies

KW - third party tracking

KW - consumer awareness

KW - data-driven markets

KW - data driven complexity

KW - ad markets

KW - trust and digital markets

KW - digital data-collecting practices

KW - GDPR

M3 - Article

VL - 8

SP - 101

EP - 120

JO - Critical Analysis of Law

JF - Critical Analysis of Law

SN - 2291-9732

IS - 1

ER -