Obsessive-compulsive disorder, tics and anxiety in 6-year-old twins

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title = "Obsessive-compulsive disorder, tics and anxiety in 6-year-old twins",
abstract = "Background. Previous reports of genetic influences on obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms have suggested moderate heritability. Family history studies of co-morbidity have found familial aggregation with tics, especially for early-onset OCD, and familial aggregation with anxiety disorders. Method. Heritability of OCD and familial aggregation of OCD, tics and anxiety disorders were investigated in a community sample of 6-year-old twins using a two-phase design in which 4662 twin pairs were sampled and 854 pairs were assessed in the second phase by maternal-informant diagnostic interview using DSM-IV criteria. Results. In the multivariate model combined additive genetic and common environmental effects were estimated as 47% for sub-threshold OCD, and the model was unable to distinguish these sources of familial aggregation. There were strong familial aggregations between sub-threshold OCD and tics and between sub-threshold OCD and other anxiety disorders (80% and 97% respectively), although again specific sources could not be distinguished. Conclusions. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis of a tic-related early-onset OCD phenotype, but also with the hypothesis of an anxiety-related early-onset OCD phenotype.",
author = "Derek Bolton and Fruhling Rijsdijk and Thomas O'Connor and Sean Perrin and Thalia Eley",
year = "2006",
doi = "10.1017/S0033291706008816",
language = "English",
volume = "37",
pages = "39--48",
journal = "Psychological Medicine",
issn = "1469-8978",
publisher = "Cambridge University Press",
number = "1",