Opioids and alpha-2-agonists for analgesia and sedation in newborn infants: protocol of a systematic review

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BACKGROUND: Hospitalized newborn infants may require analgesia and sedation either for the management of procedural pain, during or after surgery, and other painful conditions. The benefits and harms of opioids administered at different doses and routes of administration have been reported in numerous trials and systematic reviews. The use of alpha-2-agonists such as clonidine and dexmedetomidine in newborn infants is more recent, and they might be prescribed to reduce the total amount of opioids which are thought to have more side effects. Moreover, alpha-2-agonists might play an important role in the management of agitation and discomfort. METHODS: We will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the use of opioids, alpha-2-agonists, or the combination of both drugs. We will include randomized controlled trials to assess benefits and harms and observational studies to assess adverse events and pharmacokinetics; preterm and term infants; studies on any opioids or alpha-2-agonists administered for any indication and by any route except spinal, intraosseous, or administration for nerve blocks and wound infusions. The use of opioids or alpha-2-agonists will be compared to no intervention; placebo with normal saline or other non-sedative, non-analgesic drug; control with oral sugar solution or non-pharmacological intervention; same drug of different dose or route; or a different drug (not limiting to opioids and alpha-2-agonists) or combinations of such drugs. The primary outcomes for this review will be all-cause mortality during initial hospitalization and hypotension requiring medical therapy. We will conduct a search in the following databases: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL. Two review authors will independently screen records for inclusion, undertake data abstraction using a data extraction form and assess the risk of bias of all included trials using the Cochrane "Risk of bias" tool. DISCUSSION: This systematic review will summarize and update our knowledge about neonatal analgesia and sedation including pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, and provide a platform for developing evidence-based guidelines that we can immediately apply to our clinical practice. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO 2020 CRD42020170852.


Enheter & grupper
Externa organisationer
  • Keio University
  • Lund University
  • Federal University of Minas Gerais
  • Medical College of Wisconsin
  • Skåne University Hospital

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Pediatrik


TidskriftSystematic Reviews
Utgåva nummer1
StatusPublished - 2020
Peer review utfördJa