Opposing actions of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and ryanodine receptors on nuclear factor of activated T-cells regulation in smooth muscle
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The nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT), originally identified in T-cells, has since been shown to play a role in mediating Ca(2+)-dependent gene transcription in diverse cell types outside of the immune system. We have previously shown that nuclear accumulation of NFATc3 is induced in ileal smooth muscle by platelet-derived growth factor in a manner that depends on Ca(2+) influx through L-type, voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. Here we show that NFATc3 is also the predominant NFAT isoform expressed in cerebral artery smooth muscle and is induced to accumulate in the nucleus by UTP and other G(q/11)-coupled receptor agonists. This induction is mediated by calcineurin and is dependent on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release through inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors and extracellular Ca(2+) influx through L-type, voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. Consistent with results obtained in ileal smooth muscle, depolarization-induced Ca(2+) influx fails to induce NFAT nuclear accumulation in cerebral arteries. We also provide evidence that Ca(2+) release by ryanodine receptors in the form of Ca(2+) sparks may exert an inhibitory influence on UTP-induced NFATc3 nuclear accumulation and further suggest that UTP may act, in part, by inhibiting Ca(2+) sparks. These results are consistent with a multifactorial regulation of NFAT nuclear accumulation in smooth muscle that is likely to involve several intracellular signaling pathways, including local effects of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release and effects attributable to global elevations in intracellular Ca(2+).