Pharmacodynamics of moxifloxacin and levofloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli: simulation of human plasma concentrations after intravenous dosage in an in vitro kinetic model.
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Objectives: To compare in an in vitro kinetic model the pharmacodynamics of moxifloxacin and levofloxacin with a concentration-time profile simulating the human free non-protein bound concentrations of 400 mg moxifloxacin intravenous (iv) once daily, 500 mg levofloxacin iv once daily and 750 mg levofloxacin iv once daily against strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli with variable susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. Methods: The strains used in the study included S. pneumoniae ATCC 6306 (native strain), S. pneumoniae 19397 (double mutation; gyrA and parC), S. pneumoniae 4241 (single mutation; parC), S. aureus ATCC 13709 (native strain), S. aureus MB5 (single mutation; gyrA), E. coli M12 (single mutation; gyrA), E. coli ATCC 25922 (native strain) and K. pneumoniae ATCC 29655 (native strain). The strains were exposed to moxifloxacin and levofloxacin in an in vitro kinetic model simulating the free human serum concentration-time profile of moxifloxacin 400 mg once daily, levofloxacin 500 mg once daily and 750 mg once daily. Repeated samples were taken regularly during 24 h and viable counts were carried out. Results and conclusions: A correlation was seen between both the area under the serum concentration curve and MIC (AUC/MIC) and the peak concentration/MIC (C-max/MIC) versus area under the bactericidal killing curve (AUBKC) or Delta log(0-24) cfu/mL. Compiling all data, an AUC/MIC of similar to 100 and a Cmax/MIC of 10 gave a maximal bactericidal effect for both levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. In accordance with the results from others, our study indicated that a lower AUC/MIC was needed for S. pneumoniae in comparison with the Gram-negative bacteria studied. Moxifloxacin yielded higher AUC/MIC and Cmax/MIC against the investigated Gram-positive bacteria in comparison with levofloxacin 500 mg once daily and 750 mg once daily.
Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK
|Tidskrift||Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy|
|Status||Published - 2006|
|Peer review utförd||Ja|