Physical fitness among swedish military conscripts and long-term risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus a cohort study

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Bibtex

@article{96eb81f158484f54b3892303f0c6943c,
title = "Physical fitness among swedish military conscripts and long-term risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus a cohort study",
abstract = "Background: Early-life physical fitness has rarely been examined in relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in adulthood because of the lengthy follow-up required. Elucidation of modifiable risk factors at young ages may help facilitate earlier and more effective interventions. Objective: To examine aerobic capacity and muscle strength at age 18 years in relation to risk for type 2 DM in adulthood. Design: National cohort study. Setting: Sweden. Participants: 1 534 425 military conscripts from 1969 to 1997 (97{\%} to 98{\%} of all men aged 18 years nationwide) without prior type 2 DM. Measurements: Aerobic capacity and muscle strength (measured in watts and newtons per kilogram of body weight, respectively) were examined in relation to type 2 DM identified from outpatient and inpatient diagnoses from 1987 to 2012 (maximum age, 62 years). Results: 34 008 men were diagnosed with type 2 DM in 39.4 million person-years of follow-up. Low aerobic capacity and muscle strength were independently associated with increased risk for type 2 DM. The absolute difference in cumulative incidence of type 2 DM between the lowest and highest tertiles of both aerobic capacity and strength was 0.22{\%} at 20 years of follow-up (95{\%} CI, 0.20{\%} to 0.25{\%}), 0.76{\%} at 30 years (CI, 0.71{\%} to 0.81{\%}), and 3.97{\%} at 40 years (CI, 3.87{\%} to 4.06{\%}). Overall, the combination of low aerobic capacity and muscle strength was associated with a 3-fold risk for type 2 DM(adjusted hazard ratio, 3.07 [CI, 2.88 to 3.27]; P <0.001), with a positive additive interaction (P <0.001). These associations were seen even among men with normal body mass index. Limitation: This cohort did not include women and did not measure physical fitness at older ages. Conclusion: In this large cohort of Swedish male military conscripts, low aerobic capacity and muscle strength at age 18 years were associated with increased long-term risk for type 2 DM, even among those with normal body mass index. Primary Funding Source: National Institutes of Health.",
author = "Casey Crump and Jan Sundquist and Winkleby, {Marilyn A.} and Weiva Sieh and Kristina Sundquist",
year = "2016",
month = "5",
day = "3",
doi = "10.7326/M15-2002",
language = "English",
volume = "164",
pages = "577--584",
journal = "Annals of Internal Medicine",
issn = "0003-4819",
publisher = "American College of Physicians",
number = "9",

}