Planet population synthesis driven by pebble accretion in cluster environments

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Planet population synthesis driven by pebble accretion in cluster environments. / Ndugu, N.; Bitsch, B.; Jurua, E.

I: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 474, Nr. 1, 01.02.2018, s. 886-897.

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Planet population synthesis driven by pebble accretion in cluster environments

AU - Ndugu, N.

AU - Bitsch, B.

AU - Jurua, E.

PY - 2018/2/1

Y1 - 2018/2/1

N2 - The evolution of protoplanetary discs embedded in stellar clusters depends on the age and the stellar density in which they are embedded. Stellar clusters of young age and high stellar surface density destroy protoplanetary discs by external photoevaporation and stellar encounters. Here, we consider the effect of background heating from newly formed stellar clusters on the structure of protoplanetary discs and how it affects the formation of planets in these discs. Our planet formation model is built on the core accretion scenario, where we take the reduction of the core growth time-scale due to pebble accretion into account. We synthesize planet populations that we compare to observations obtained by radial velocity measurements. The giant planets in our simulations migrate over large distances due to the fast type-II migration regime induced by a high disc viscosity (α = 5.4 × 10-3). Cold Jupiters (rp > 1 au) originate preferably from the outer disc, due to the large-scale planetary migration, while hot Jupiters (rp < 0.1 au) preferably form in the inner disc. We find that the formation of gas giants via pebble accretion is in agreement with the metallicity correlation, meaning that more gas giants are formed at larger metallicity. However, our synthetic population of isolated stars host a significant amount of giant planets even at low metallicity, in contradiction to observations where giant planets are preferably found around high metallicity stars, indicating that pebble accretion is very efficient in the standard pebble accretion framework. On the other hand, discs around stars embedded in cluster environments hardly form any giant planets at low metallicity in agreement with observations, where these changes originate from the increased temperature in the outer parts of the disc, which prolongs the core accretion time-scale of the planet. We therefore conclude that the outer disc structure and the planet's formation location determines the giant planet occurrence rate and the formation efficiency of cold and hot Jupiters.

AB - The evolution of protoplanetary discs embedded in stellar clusters depends on the age and the stellar density in which they are embedded. Stellar clusters of young age and high stellar surface density destroy protoplanetary discs by external photoevaporation and stellar encounters. Here, we consider the effect of background heating from newly formed stellar clusters on the structure of protoplanetary discs and how it affects the formation of planets in these discs. Our planet formation model is built on the core accretion scenario, where we take the reduction of the core growth time-scale due to pebble accretion into account. We synthesize planet populations that we compare to observations obtained by radial velocity measurements. The giant planets in our simulations migrate over large distances due to the fast type-II migration regime induced by a high disc viscosity (α = 5.4 × 10-3). Cold Jupiters (rp > 1 au) originate preferably from the outer disc, due to the large-scale planetary migration, while hot Jupiters (rp < 0.1 au) preferably form in the inner disc. We find that the formation of gas giants via pebble accretion is in agreement with the metallicity correlation, meaning that more gas giants are formed at larger metallicity. However, our synthetic population of isolated stars host a significant amount of giant planets even at low metallicity, in contradiction to observations where giant planets are preferably found around high metallicity stars, indicating that pebble accretion is very efficient in the standard pebble accretion framework. On the other hand, discs around stars embedded in cluster environments hardly form any giant planets at low metallicity in agreement with observations, where these changes originate from the increased temperature in the outer parts of the disc, which prolongs the core accretion time-scale of the planet. We therefore conclude that the outer disc structure and the planet's formation location determines the giant planet occurrence rate and the formation efficiency of cold and hot Jupiters.

KW - Accretion

KW - Accretion discs

KW - Planets and satellites: formation

KW - Protoplanetary discs

U2 - 10.1093/mnras/stx2815

DO - 10.1093/mnras/stx2815

M3 - Article

VL - 474

SP - 886

EP - 897

JO - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

T2 - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

JF - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

SN - 1365-2966

IS - 1

ER -