Pro-inflammatory S100A9 Protein as a Robust Biomarker Differentiating Early Stages of Cognitive Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift


Pro-inflammatory protein S100A9 was established as a biomarker of dementia progression and compared with others such as Aβ1-42 and tau-proteins. CSF samples from 104 stringently diagnosed individuals divided into five subgroups were analyzed, including nondemented controls, stable mild cognitive impairment (SMCI), mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) patients. ELISA, dot-blotting, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used as research methods. The S100A9 and Aβ1-42 levels correlated with each other: their CSF content decreased already at the SMCI stage and declined further under MCI-AD, AD, and VaD conditions. Immunohistochemical analysis also revealed involvement of both Aβ1-42 and S100A9 in the amyloid-neuroinflammatory cascade already during SMCI. Tau proteins were not yet altered in SMCI; however their contents increased during MCI-AD and AD, diagnosing later dementia stages. Thus, four biomarkers together, reflecting different underlying pathological causes, can accurately differentiate dementia progression and also distinguish AD from VaD.


  • I. Horvath
  • X. Jia
  • Per Johansson
  • C. Wang
  • R. Moskalenko
  • A. Steinau
  • L. Forsgren
  • T. Wågberg
  • J. Svensson
  • H. Zetterberg
  • L. A. Morozova-Roche
Externa organisationer
  • Göteborgs universitet

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Neurovetenskaper
Sidor (från-till)34-39
TidskriftACS Chemical Neuroscience
StatusPublished - 2016
Peer review utfördJa
Externt publiceradJa

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