Protein Expression in Metastatic Melanoma and the Link to Disease Presentation in a Range of Tumor Phenotypes

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T1 - Protein Expression in Metastatic Melanoma and the Link to Disease Presentation in a Range of Tumor Phenotypes

AU - Kim, Yonghyo

AU - Gil, Jeovanis

AU - Pla, Indira

AU - Sanchez, Aniel

AU - Betancourt, Lazaro Hiram

AU - Lee, Boram

AU - Appelqvist, Roger

AU - Ingvar, Christian

AU - Lundgren, Lotta

AU - Olsson, Håkan

AU - Baldetorp, Bo

AU - Kwon, Ho Jeong

AU - Oskolás, Henriett

AU - Rezeli, Melinda

AU - Doma, Viktoria

AU - Kárpáti, Sarolta

AU - Szasz, A Marcell

AU - Németh, István Balázs

AU - Malm, Johan

AU - Marko-Varga, György

PY - 2020/3/24

Y1 - 2020/3/24

N2 - Malignant melanoma is among the most aggressive skin cancers and it has among the highest metastatic potentials. Although surgery to remove the primary tumor is the gold standard treatment, once melanoma progresses and metastasizes to the lymph nodes and distal organs, i.e., metastatic melanoma (MM), the usual outcome is decreased survival. To improve survival rates and life span, advanced treatments have focused on the success of targeted therapies in the MAPK pathway that are based on BRAF (BRAF V600E) and MEK. The majority of patients with tumors that have higher expression of BRAF V600E show poorer prognosis than patients with a lower level of the mutated protein. Based on the molecular basis of melanoma, these findings are supported by distinct tumor phenotypes determined from differences in tumor heterogeneity and protein expression profiles. With these aspects in mind, continued challenges are to: (1) deconvolute the complexity and heterogeneity of MM; (2) identify the signaling pathways involved; and (3) determine protein expression to develop targeted therapies. Here, we provide an overview of the results from protein expression in MM and the link to disease presentation in a variety of tumor phenotypes and how these will overcome the challenges of clinical problems and suggest new promising approaches in metastatic melanoma and cancer therapy.

AB - Malignant melanoma is among the most aggressive skin cancers and it has among the highest metastatic potentials. Although surgery to remove the primary tumor is the gold standard treatment, once melanoma progresses and metastasizes to the lymph nodes and distal organs, i.e., metastatic melanoma (MM), the usual outcome is decreased survival. To improve survival rates and life span, advanced treatments have focused on the success of targeted therapies in the MAPK pathway that are based on BRAF (BRAF V600E) and MEK. The majority of patients with tumors that have higher expression of BRAF V600E show poorer prognosis than patients with a lower level of the mutated protein. Based on the molecular basis of melanoma, these findings are supported by distinct tumor phenotypes determined from differences in tumor heterogeneity and protein expression profiles. With these aspects in mind, continued challenges are to: (1) deconvolute the complexity and heterogeneity of MM; (2) identify the signaling pathways involved; and (3) determine protein expression to develop targeted therapies. Here, we provide an overview of the results from protein expression in MM and the link to disease presentation in a variety of tumor phenotypes and how these will overcome the challenges of clinical problems and suggest new promising approaches in metastatic melanoma and cancer therapy.

U2 - 10.3390/cancers12030767

DO - 10.3390/cancers12030767

M3 - Review article

C2 - 32213878

VL - 12

JO - Cancers

JF - Cancers

SN - 2072-6694

IS - 3

M1 - 767

ER -