Real-world costs of continuous insulin pump therapy and multiple daily injections for type 1 diabetes: A population-based and propensity-matched cohort from the Swedish National Diabetes Register

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OBJECTIVE To investigate real-world costs of continuous insulin pump therapy compared with multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy for type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Individuals with type 1 diabetes and pump therapy in the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR) since 2002 were eligible. Control subjects on MDI were matched 2:1 using time-varying propensity scores. Longitudinal data on health care resource use, antidiabetes treatment, sickness absence, and early retirement were taken from national registers for 2005–2013. Mean annual costs were analyzed using univariate analysis. Regression analyses explored the role of sociodemographic factors. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS A total of 14,238 individuals with type 1 diabetes entered in the NDR between 2005 and 2013 (insulin pump n = 4,991, MDI n = 9,247, with switches allowed during the study) were included. Mean age at baseline was 34 years, with 21 years of diabetes duration and a mean HbA 1c of 8.1% (65 mmol/mol). We had 73,920 person-years of observation with a mean follow-up of 5 years per participant. Mean annual costs were higher for pump therapy than for MDI therapy ($12,928 vs. $9,005, respectively; P < 0.001; mean difference $3,923 [95% CI $3,703–$4,143]). Health care costs, including medications and disposables, accounted for 73% of the costs for pump therapy and 63% of the costs for MDI therapy. Regression analyses showed higher costs for low education, low disposable income, women, and older age. CONCLUSIONS Nine years of real-world data on all measurable diabetes-related resource use show robust results for additional costs of insulin pump therapy in adults by subgroup and alternative propensity score specifications. Identification of tangible and intangible benefits of pump therapy over time remain important to support resource allocation decisions.


  • Emilie Toresson Grip
  • Ann Marie Svensson
  • Mervete Miftaraj
  • Björn Eliasson
  • Stefan Franzén
  • Soffia Gudbjörnsdottir
  • Katarina Steen Carlsson
Enheter & grupper
Externa organisationer
  • IHE – The Swedish Institute for Health Economics
  • Sahlgrenska University Hospital
  • Sweden National Diabetes Register
  • Göteborgs universitet

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Endokrinologi och diabetes
  • Hälso- och sjukvårdsorganisation, hälsopolitik och hälsoekonomi
Sidor (från-till)545-552
Antal sidor8
TidskriftDiabetes Care
StatusPublished - 2019
Peer review utfördJa