Reconstruction of Past European Land Cover Based on Fossil Pollen Data: Gaussian Markov Random Field Models for Compositional Data

Forskningsoutput: AvhandlingDoktorsavhandling (sammanläggning)

Abstract

Spatial distribution of land cover plays an important role in climate system and
global carbon cycle. Research shows that changes in land cover are associated with large climatic effects. These changes are either due to climate change or human activities. Human can influence and change the abundance of land cover through deforestation, urbanization and agriculture. Studies show that replacing forests with agricultural land decreases the temperature while urbanization causes local increases in temperature. Comparing the historical temperature records with past natural and human induced land cover might give a better understanding of the interactions among climate, land cover and human effects.
The problem is the existence of considerably different descriptions of past
land cover and human land use. Existing land cover descriptions are based on
natural land cover combined with human land use. Past human land use maps
are mainly based on simulations of human population density and the amount
of agricultural land needed to feed the given population. Furthermore, natural
land cover maps are simulations based on past climate including temperature,
precipitation and soil type; they represent the natural vegetation that can grow in certain climate conditions without considering human activity. The differences in these available maps are caused by differences in the model assumptions, as well as the simulations of climate variables and population density.
On the other hand, fossil pollen counts can be used to estimate past land
cover based on local observations over the past 10 000 years. The only problem is that the information on pollen counts, extracted from lakes and bogs, are limited in reproducing the land cover for the area surrounding these lakes and bogs.
This thesis aims to develop statistical models that can create continuous maps
of past land cover and human land use based on pollen observations.
Since the spread of pollen as well as certain climate conditions lead to the
growth of similar types of vegetation within a spatial range, one can expect to
observe similar vegetation types in areas closer to each other than farther apart.
Because of this fact, spatial statistics is used as a main tool to identify and model
this space dependency in the pollen observations.

Detaljer

Författare
Enheter & grupper
Forskningsområden

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Miljövetenskap
  • Sannolikhetsteori och statistik
  • Klimatforskning

Konstnärlig forskning

  • Digital eller visuell produkt

Nyckelord

Originalspråkengelska
KvalifikationDoktor
Tilldelande institution
Handledare/Biträdande handledare
Tilldelningsdatum2016 dec 19
UtgivningsortLund, Sweden
Förlag
  • Lund University, Faculty of Science, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Climate Research
Tryckta ISBN978-91-7753-076-3
Elektroniska ISBN978-91-7753-077-0
StatusPublished - 2016 nov
PublikationskategoriForskning

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