Replication, effect sizes and identifying the biological impacts of pesticides on bees under field conditions

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

Standard

Replication, effect sizes and identifying the biological impacts of pesticides on bees under field conditions. / Woodcock, Ben A.; Heard, Matthew S.; Jitlal, Mark S.; Rundlöf, Maj; Bullock, James M.; Shore, Richard F.; Pywell, Richard F.

I: Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 53, Nr. 5, 01.10.2016, s. 1358-1362.

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

Harvard

APA

CBE

MLA

Vancouver

Author

Woodcock, Ben A. ; Heard, Matthew S. ; Jitlal, Mark S. ; Rundlöf, Maj ; Bullock, James M. ; Shore, Richard F. ; Pywell, Richard F. / Replication, effect sizes and identifying the biological impacts of pesticides on bees under field conditions. I: Journal of Applied Ecology. 2016 ; Vol. 53, Nr. 5. s. 1358-1362.

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Replication, effect sizes and identifying the biological impacts of pesticides on bees under field conditions

AU - Woodcock, Ben A.

AU - Heard, Matthew S.

AU - Jitlal, Mark S.

AU - Rundlöf, Maj

AU - Bullock, James M.

AU - Shore, Richard F.

AU - Pywell, Richard F.

PY - 2016/10/1

Y1 - 2016/10/1

N2 - Honeybees have world-wide importance as crop pollinators. To ensure their persistence in agricultural systems, statistically robust field trials of plant protection products are vital. We consider the implications of regulations from the European Food Safety Authority that require the detection of a 7% effect size change in bee colony sizes under field conditions. Based on a power analysis, we argue that the necessary levels of replication (68 replicates) may pose practical constraints to field testing. Policy implications. Regulatory studies benefit from data sources collated over a range of spatial scales, from laboratory to landscapes. Basing effect size thresholds solely on expert judgement, as has been done, may be inappropriate. Rather, definition through experimental or simulation studies that assess the biological consequences of changes in colony size for bee populations is required. This has implications for regulatory bodies outside the European Union.

AB - Honeybees have world-wide importance as crop pollinators. To ensure their persistence in agricultural systems, statistically robust field trials of plant protection products are vital. We consider the implications of regulations from the European Food Safety Authority that require the detection of a 7% effect size change in bee colony sizes under field conditions. Based on a power analysis, we argue that the necessary levels of replication (68 replicates) may pose practical constraints to field testing. Policy implications. Regulatory studies benefit from data sources collated over a range of spatial scales, from laboratory to landscapes. Basing effect size thresholds solely on expert judgement, as has been done, may be inappropriate. Rather, definition through experimental or simulation studies that assess the biological consequences of changes in colony size for bee populations is required. This has implications for regulatory bodies outside the European Union.

KW - agriculture

KW - bumblebees

KW - experimental design

KW - honeybees

KW - neonicotinoids

KW - pesticides

KW - pollinators

KW - regulatory risk assessment

KW - statistical power testing

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84987748115&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/1365-2664.12676

DO - 10.1111/1365-2664.12676

M3 - Article

VL - 53

SP - 1358

EP - 1362

JO - Journal of Applied Ecology

T2 - Journal of Applied Ecology

JF - Journal of Applied Ecology

SN - 1365-2664

IS - 5

ER -