Simultaneous laser-driven x-ray and two-photon fluorescence imaging of atomizing sprays

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title = "Simultaneous laser-driven x-ray and two-photon fluorescence imaging of atomizing sprays",
abstract = "In this Letter, we report for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the possibility of visualizing an atomizing spray by simultaneously recording x-ray absorption and two-photon laser-induced fluorescence imaging. This unique illumination/detection scheme is made possible due to the use of soft x rays emitted from a laser-driven x-ray source. An 800 mJ laser pulse of 38 fs duration is used to generate an x-ray beam with up to 4 × 108 photons ranging from 1 to 10 keV, allowing projection radiography of water jets generated by an automotive port fuel injector. In addition, a fraction of the laser pulse (∼10mJ) is employed to form a light sheet and to induce two-photon fluorescence in a dye added to the water. The resulting high-contrast fluorescence images provide fine details of the spray structure, with reduced blur from multiple light scattering, while the integrated liquid mass is extracted from the x-ray radiography. In this proof of principle, we show that the combination of these two highly complementary techniques, in both the visible and soft x-ray regimes, is very promising for future characterization of challenging spray, as well as for further understanding of the physics of liquid atomization.",
author = "D. Gu{\'e}not and K. Svendsen and {Bj{\"o}rklund Svensson}, J. and H. Ekerfelt and A. Persson and O. Lundh and E. Berrocal",
year = "2020",
doi = "10.1364/OPTICA.378063",
language = "English",
volume = "7",
pages = "131--134",
journal = "Optica",
issn = "2334-2536",
publisher = "Optical Society of America",
number = "2",