Skim milk powder with high content of Maillard reaction products affect weight gain, organ development and intestinal inflammation in early life in rats

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T1 - Skim milk powder with high content of Maillard reaction products affect weight gain, organ development and intestinal inflammation in early life in rats

AU - Hillman, M.

AU - Weström, B.

AU - Aalaei, K.

AU - Erlanson-Albertsson, C.

AU - Wolinski, J.

AU - Lozinska, L.

AU - Sjöholm, I.

AU - Rayner, M.

AU - Landin-Olsson, M.

PY - 2019/3/1

Y1 - 2019/3/1

N2 - Background: The intestinal tract is important for development of immune tolerance and disturbances are suggested to trigger autoimmune disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of Maillard products in skim milk powder obtained after long storage, compared to fresh skim milk powder. Methods: Young rats were weaned onto a diet based on skim milk powder with high concentration of Maillard products (HM-SM, n = 18) or low (C-SM, n = 18) for one week or four weeks. Weekly body weight and feed consumption were noted. At the end, organ weights, intestinal histology, permeability and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Results: Rats fed with HM-SM had after one week, 15% less weight gain than controls, despite equal feed intake. After one week thymus and spleen were smaller, intestinal mucosa thickness was increased and acute inflammatory cytokines (IL-17, IL-1β, MCP-1) were elevated. After four weeks, cytokines associated with chronic intestinal inflammation (fractalkine, IP-10, leptin, LIX, MIP-2, RANTES and VEGF) were increased in rats fed with HM-SM compared to C-SM. Conclusion: High content of Maillard products in stored milk powder caused an intestinal inflammation. Whether this is relevant for tolerance development and future autoimmune diseases remains to be explored.

AB - Background: The intestinal tract is important for development of immune tolerance and disturbances are suggested to trigger autoimmune disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of Maillard products in skim milk powder obtained after long storage, compared to fresh skim milk powder. Methods: Young rats were weaned onto a diet based on skim milk powder with high concentration of Maillard products (HM-SM, n = 18) or low (C-SM, n = 18) for one week or four weeks. Weekly body weight and feed consumption were noted. At the end, organ weights, intestinal histology, permeability and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Results: Rats fed with HM-SM had after one week, 15% less weight gain than controls, despite equal feed intake. After one week thymus and spleen were smaller, intestinal mucosa thickness was increased and acute inflammatory cytokines (IL-17, IL-1β, MCP-1) were elevated. After four weeks, cytokines associated with chronic intestinal inflammation (fractalkine, IP-10, leptin, LIX, MIP-2, RANTES and VEGF) were increased in rats fed with HM-SM compared to C-SM. Conclusion: High content of Maillard products in stored milk powder caused an intestinal inflammation. Whether this is relevant for tolerance development and future autoimmune diseases remains to be explored.

KW - Autoimmune diseases

KW - Immune tolerance

KW - Inflammatory cytokines

KW - Intestinal inflammation

KW - Maillard reactions

U2 - 10.1016/j.fct.2018.12.015

DO - 10.1016/j.fct.2018.12.015

M3 - Article

VL - 125

SP - 78

EP - 84

JO - Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

T2 - Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

JF - Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

SN - 1873-6351

ER -