Smoking and the risk of LADA: Results from a Swedish population-based case-control study

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OBJECTIVE: Smoking is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes. In contrast, it has been proposed that smoking may reduce the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), but studies are scarce. We aimed to study the impact of smoking on LADA and type 2 diabetes risks. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used data from a Swedish case-control study including incident case patients with LADA (GAD antibody [GADA] positive, n = 377) and type 2 diabetes (GADA negative, n = 1,188) and control subjects randomly selected from the population (n = 1,472). We calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs by logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, family history of diabetes, and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: There was no indication of reduced risk of LADA in smokers; instead, heavy smoking was associated with an increased risk of LADA (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.02-1.84). Heavy smokers had higher levels of HOMA of insulin resistance (9.89 vs. 4.38, P = 0.0479) and HOMA of β-cell function (55.7 vs. 42.5, P = 0.0204), but lower levels of GADA (75 vs. 250, P = 0.0445), compared with never smokers. Smokers also displayedanincreased risk oftype2 diabetes (OR in eversmokers 1.53, 95% CI 1.25-1.88). CONCLUSIONS: In this large population of LADA patients, we did not observe a protective effect of smoking on autoimmunity and the risk of LADA. A protective effect could possibly be masked by a smoking-induced aggravation of insulin resistance, akin to the diabetogenic effect seen in individuals with type 2 diabetes.


  • Bahareh Rasouli
  • Tomas Andersson
  • Per Ola Carlsson
  • Valdemar Grill
  • Leif Groop
  • Mats Martinell
  • Petter Storm
  • Tiinamaija Tuomi
  • Sofia Carlsson
Enheter & grupper
Externa organisationer
  • Karolinska University Hospital
  • Uppsala universitet, Historiska institutionen
  • St. Olav’s University Hospital
  • Helsinki University Central Hospital

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Endokrinologi och diabetes
Sidor (från-till)794-800
Antal sidor7
TidskriftDiabetes Care
StatusPublished - 2016
Peer review utfördJa